Prostate Cancer Cells with Stem Cell Characteristics Reconstitute the Original Human Tumor In vivo

Vanderbilt University, Нашвилл, Michigan, United States
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.33). 06/2007; 67(10):4807-15. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-4608
Source: PubMed


Cancer may arise from a cancer stem/progenitor cell that shares characteristics with its normal counterpart. We report the reconstitution of the original human prostate cancer specimen from epithelial cell lines (termed HPET for human prostate epithelial/hTERT) derived from this sample. These tumors can be described in terms of Gleason score, a classification not applied to any of the transgenic mouse models currently developed to mimic human disease. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses indicate that they do not express androgen receptor or p63, similar to that reported for prostate stem cells. These cell lines also express embryonic stem markers (Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2) as well as early progenitor cell markers (CD44 and Nestin) in vitro. Clonally derived HPET cells reconstitute the original human tumor in vivo and differentiate into the three prostate epithelial cell lineages, indicating that they arise from a common stem/progenitor cell. Serial transplantation experiments reconstitute the tumors, suggesting that a fraction of parental or clonally derived HPET cells have self-renewal potential. Thus, this model may enhance our understanding of human tumor development and provide a mechanism for studying cancer stem/progenitor cells in differentiation, tumorigenesis, preclinical testing, and the development of drug resistance.

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    • "A number of primary non-malignant and malignant tumor-derived human prostate epithelial cell lines have been developed using a retroviral vector encoding human telomerase reverse transcriptase. These cell lines exhibit the characteristics of stem cells and express embryonic stem (ES) cell markers, such as NANOG, octamer 4 (OCT4) and SRY-box 2 (Sox-2), as well as the early progenitor cell markers, cluster of differentiation 133 (CD133), CD44 and NESTIN (7,8). "
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in a variety of cancer types, including prostate cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of NANOG, octamer 4 (OCT4), cluster of differentiation 133 (CD133) and NESTIN, which are all CSC markers, and assess their function in prostate carcinogenesis. A total of 114 patients were referred to the Kanazawa Medical University Hospital (Uchinada, Japan) having presented with elevated serum prostate-specific antigen levels and/or abnormal digital rectal examinations, and underwent transrectal ultrasound sonography guided eight core biopsies. The prostate pathological specimens were re-evaluated for selection in this study. When specimens were diagnosed as prostate cancer, immunohistochemical analysis of the four different stem cell markers (NANOG, OCT4, CD133 and NESTIN) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α was performed. Prostate cancer was found in 38 cases (33.3%), while the other patients had benign prostate hyperplasia with prostatitis. All prostate cancers were histopathologically identified as adenocarcinomas of various grades, and cancer cells and intraepithelial neoplasia (high grade) were immunohistochemically shown to express NANOG and OCT4, but not CD133 and NESTIN. The intensity of NANOG expression was much greater than that of OCT4, and the positivity and intensity of the four stem cell markers, including NANOG, were elevated with high Gleason scores. A significant correlation was observed between the NANOG- and HIF-1α-positive regions. The CSC markers, in particular OCT4 and NANOG, were immunohistochemically expressed in prostate cancers. Furthermore, HIF-1α expression may affect NANOG and/or OCT4 expression. The findings of the current study suggested that NANOG expression may be a biomarker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer, and the coexpression of NANOG and HIF-1α may be involved in prostate carcinogenesis.
    Oncology letters 09/2014; 8(3):985-992. DOI:10.3892/ol.2014.2274 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    • "Oct4 and Sox2 are overexpressed in some cancer stem cell types [34]. Examples include human oral, prostate and breast carcinoma [34–37] and are sometime selectively elevated in advanced cancer [34,36,38]. The observation that SCC-13 cell derived spheroids are enriched in Oct4 and Sox2 suggest that they share properties with embryonic stem cells and may reflect the fact that they are transformed [34,39]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Epidermal squamous cell carcinoma is among the most common cancers in humans. These tumors are comprised of phenotypically diverse populations of cells that display varying potential for proliferation and differentiation. An important goal is identifying cells from this population that drive tumor formation. To enrich for tumor-forming cells, cancer cells were grown as spheroids in non-attached conditions. We show that spheroid-selected cells form faster growing and larger tumors in immune-compromised mice as compared to non-selected cells. Moreover, spheroid-selected cells gave rise to tumors following injection of as few as one hundred cells, suggesting these cells have enhanced tumor-forming potential. Cells isolated from spheroid-selected tumors retain an enhanced ability to grow as spheroids when grown in non-attached culture conditions. Thus, these tumor-forming cells retain their phenotype following in vivo passage as tumors. Detailed analysis reveals that spheroid-selected cultures are highly enriched for expression of epidermal stem cell and embryonic stem cell markers, including aldehyde dehydrogenase 1, keratin 15, CD200, keratin 19, Oct4, Bmi-1, Ezh2 and trimethylated histone H3. These studies indicate that a subpopulation of cells that possess stem cell-like properties and express stem cell markers can be derived from human epidermal cancer cells and that these cells display enhanced ability to drive tumor formation.
    PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e84324. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0084324 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Prostate luminal cells have been shown to give rise to human PrCa following over-expression of specific genes [7]. Of note, stem/progenitor cells have not been propagated in an unmodified state from early stages of CR-PrCa [8], [9]. Despite the presence of Cancer Initiating Cells (CIC) in immortal PrCa cell lines derived from metastatic PrCa [10], the role of epithelial stem/progenitor cells in the generation of prostate CIC remains elusive [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Although blockade of androgen receptor (AR) signaling represents the main treatment for advanced prostate cancer (PrCa), many patients progress to a lethal phenotype of "Castration-Resistant" prostate cancer (CR-PrCa). With the hypothesis that early PrCa may harbor a population of androgen-unresponsive cancer cells as precursors to CR-recurrent disease, we undertook the propagation of androgen-independent cells from PrCa-prostatectomy samples of early, localized (Stage-I) cases. A collection of 120 surgical specimens from prostatectomy cases was established, among which 54 were adenocarcinomas. Hormone-free cell culture conditions were developed allowing routine propagation of cells expressing prostate basal cell markers and stem/progenitor cell markers, and which proliferated as spheres/spheroids in suspension cultures. Colonies of androgen-independent epithelial cells grew out from 30/43 (70%) of the adenocarcinoma cases studied in detail. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry showed that CR-PrCa cells were positive for CD44, CD133, CK5/14, c-kit, integrin α2β1, SSEA4, E-Cadherin and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH). All 30 CR-PrCa cell cultures were also TERT-positive, but negative for TMPRSS2-ERG. Additionally, a subset of 22 of these CR-PrCa cell cultures was examined by orthotopic xenografting in intact and castrated SCID mice, generating histologically typical locally-invasive human PrCa or undifferentiated cancers, respectively, in 6-8 weeks. Cultured PrCa cells and orthotopically-induced in vivo cancers lacked PSA expression. We report here the propagation of Cancer Initiating Cells (CIC) directly from Stage I human PrCa tissue without selection or genetic manipulation. The propagation of stem/progenitor-like CR-PrCa cells derived from early human prostate carcinomas suggests the existence of a subpopulation of cells resistant to androgen-deprivation therapy and which may drive the subsequent emergence of disseminated CR-PrCa.
    PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e74438. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0074438 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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