Application of a stress and coping model to antenatal depressive symptomatology.
ABSTRACT This study examined the utility of a stress/coping model of antenatal depressive symptomatology. The direct and moderating effects of appraisal, coping resources and coping strategies on depression were explored. A total of 242 primiparous women completed questionnaires during the third trimester of pregnancy. Predictors included life events, coping resources (social support, quality of women's earlier relationships with parents), appraisal (threat, self-efficacy) and coping strategies (wishful thinking, positive reappraisal, problem solving, emotional approach). Results of regression analyses indicated that higher depression was related to higher stressful life events, threat appraisal and wishful thinking coping, and lower positive reappraisal coping. The expected stress exacerbation effects of wishful thinking on depression were supported. There was no support for the expected stress buffering effects of coping resources and coping strategies on depression. Findings provide preliminary support for the use of a stress/coping model to guide future research into psychosocial predictors of antenatal depression.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction Caring for a person with Parkinson’s disease (PwP) can have a variety of negative consequences that may challenge their ability to continue their caring role. It is still unknown why some individuals adapt better than others in response to such burdens. This review is the first to synthesise and evaluate the evidence on the predictive factors of psychosocial outcomes in PwP carers. Methods Studies which identified predictors of psychosocial outcomes for unpaid carers were included. PsychINFO, EMBASE, AMED, BNI and CINAHL databases were searched, supplemented by scanning of references lists of included studies and relevant journals from 2008 onwards. Quality was assessed using the NICE methodology checklist for prognostic studies. Results Twenty-nine studies were included in the review, providing a low-level of evidence. Carer burden was investigated in 18 studies and mental health and quality of life (QoL) in seven studies each. PwP non-motor symptoms and QoL and carer depression were consistently identified as predictors for at least one psychosocial outcome. Demographics and disease factors were consistently found not to be predictors. Carer involvement and protective factors (e.g. social support, personality) demonstrated promising findings but studies were too few or factors measured inconsistently. Conclusion Confident conclusions could not be drawn regarding the most important predictors that should be targeted in psychosocial interventions due to methodological weaknesses and lack of theoretical testing across the current literature. Future research should build upon psychological theory to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms that explain how carers adapt to caregiving.Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2014.10.013 · 4.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Stress and fatigue are common complaints of pregnant and postpartum women as is depression. These symptoms may be related to immunomodulation. However, few studies have examined these relationships. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among stress, fatigue, depression, and cytokines as markers of immune modulation in prenatal and postpartum women. Women completed questionnaires and gave blood samples during late pregnancy and again at 4-6 weeks postpartum. Blood was analyzed for cytokines as measures of immune modulation. Stress, fatigue, and depression were experienced at moderately high levels, with higher levels of fatigue and depression in the postpartum but higher stress in the prenatal period. Levels of several cytokines were increased in the postpartum over the prenatal period. Stress and depression were related in the prenatal period and stress, depression, and fatigue were related in the postpartum. While various cytokines were related to each other in both periods, only stress was related to MIP-1 β , a cytokine that may be important for childbirth processes. More studies, especially longitudinal and interventional studies, are needed to increase our knowledge about etiology, patterns, symptoms, factors, and management of maternal distress. The search for reliable biomarkers for at-risk mothers remains a priority.The Scientific World Journal 01/2014; 2014:652630. DOI:10.1155/2014/652630 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Extensive evidence documents that prenatal maternal stress predicts a variety of adverse physical and psychological health outcomes for the mother and baby. However, the importance of the ways that women cope with stress during pregnancy is less clear. We conducted a systematic review of the English-language literature on coping behaviors and coping styles in pregnancy using PsycInfo and PubMed to identify 45 cross-sectional and longitudinal studies involving 16,060 participants published between January 1990 and June 2012. Although results were often inconsistent across studies, the literature provides some evidence that avoidant coping behaviors or styles and poor coping skills in general are associated with postpartum depression, preterm birth, and infant development. Variability in study methods including differences in sample characteristics, timing of assessments, outcome variables, and measures of coping styles or behaviors may explain the lack of consistent associations. In order to advance the scientific study of coping in pregnancy, we call attention to the need for a priori hypotheses and greater use of pregnancy-specific, daily process, and skills-based approaches. There is promise in continuing this area of research, particularly in the possible translation of consistent findings to effective interventions, but only if the conceptual basis and methodological quality of research improve.Health Psychology Review 01/2014; 8(1):70-94. DOI:10.1080/17437199.2012.752659 · 6.75 Impact Factor