This study examined the utility of a stress/coping model of antenatal depressive symptomatology. The direct and moderating effects of appraisal, coping resources and coping strategies on depression were explored. A total of 242 primiparous women completed questionnaires during the third trimester of pregnancy. Predictors included life events, coping resources (social support, quality of women's earlier relationships with parents), appraisal (threat, self-efficacy) and coping strategies (wishful thinking, positive reappraisal, problem solving, emotional approach). Results of regression analyses indicated that higher depression was related to higher stressful life events, threat appraisal and wishful thinking coping, and lower positive reappraisal coping. The expected stress exacerbation effects of wishful thinking on depression were supported. There was no support for the expected stress buffering effects of coping resources and coping strategies on depression. Findings provide preliminary support for the use of a stress/coping model to guide future research into psychosocial predictors of antenatal depression.
"A recent study suggests that low coping efficacy partially mediates the association between negative life events and incident depression . Maladaptive or passive coping strategies, including denial, distancing, self-blame and substance abuse, are associated with symptoms of antenatal depression , and with higher odds of developing postnatal depressive symptoms  , whereas positive reappraisal strategies tend to be protective . Studies that evaluate problem centered coping (a form of active coping) among pregnant women, have shown contradictory results, linking this type of coping with both lower   and higher  levels of postpartum depression. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transition to motherhood is stressful as it requires several important changes in family dynamics, finances, and working life, along with physical and psychological adjustments. This study aimed at determining whether some forms of coping might predict postpartum depressive symptomatology. A total of 1626 pregnant women participated in a multi-centric longitudinal study. Different evaluations were performed 8 and 32 weeks after delivery. Depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the structured Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS). The brief Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences (COPE) scale was used to measure coping strategies 2-3 days postpartum. Some coping strategies differentiate between women with and without postpartum depression. A logistic regression analysis was used to explore the relationships between the predictors of coping strategies and major depression (according to DSM-IV criteria). In this model, the predictor variables during the first 32 weeks were self-distraction (OR 1.18, 95 % CI 1.04-1.33), substance use (OR 0.58, 95 % CI 0.35-0.97), and self-blame (OR 1.18, 95 % CI 1.04-1.34). In healthy women with no psychiatric history, some passive coping strategies, both cognitive and behavioral, are predictors of depressive symptoms and postpartum depression and help differentiate between patients with and without depression.
Archives of Women s Mental Health 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00737-015-0581-5 · 2.16 Impact Factor
"Moreover, black women have higher rates of prenatal depressive mood than white women . Finally, studies have demonstrated that depressive symptoms are associated with levels of stress and number of stressful life events [18, 19] and pregnant women experience more stressful events than nonpregnant women . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stress and fatigue are common complaints of pregnant and postpartum women as is depression. These symptoms may be related to immunomodulation. However, few studies have examined these relationships. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among stress, fatigue, depression, and cytokines as markers of immune modulation in prenatal and postpartum women. Women completed questionnaires and gave blood samples during late pregnancy and again at 4-6 weeks postpartum. Blood was analyzed for cytokines as measures of immune modulation. Stress, fatigue, and depression were experienced at moderately high levels, with higher levels of fatigue and depression in the postpartum but higher stress in the prenatal period. Levels of several cytokines were increased in the postpartum over the prenatal period. Stress and depression were related in the prenatal period and stress, depression, and fatigue were related in the postpartum. While various cytokines were related to each other in both periods, only stress was related to MIP-1 β , a cytokine that may be important for childbirth processes. More studies, especially longitudinal and interventional studies, are needed to increase our knowledge about etiology, patterns, symptoms, factors, and management of maternal distress. The search for reliable biomarkers for at-risk mothers remains a priority.
The Scientific World Journal 01/2014; 2014:652630. DOI:10.1155/2014/652630 · 1.73 Impact Factor
", 1997 ) . Within a sample of 242 first - time mothers in Australia , Pakenham and colleagues ( 2007 ) found an association between pregnancy - related threat appraisal and depression during the third trimester of pregnancy only among women who reported high wishful thinking to cope with pregnancy - related stress . Another study of 92 pregnant women also found limited evidence of a stress - moderating effect of coping . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extensive evidence documents that prenatal maternal stress predicts a variety of adverse physical and psychological health outcomes for the mother and baby. However, the importance of the ways that women cope with stress during pregnancy is less clear. We conducted a systematic review of the English-language literature on coping behaviors and coping styles in pregnancy using PsycInfo and PubMed to identify 45 cross-sectional and longitudinal studies involving 16,060 participants published between January 1990 and June 2012. Although results were often inconsistent across studies, the literature provides some evidence that avoidant coping behaviors or styles and poor coping skills in general are associated with postpartum depression, preterm birth, and infant development. Variability in study methods including differences in sample characteristics, timing of assessments, outcome variables, and measures of coping styles or behaviors may explain the lack of consistent associations. In order to advance the scientific study of coping in pregnancy, we call attention to the need for a priori hypotheses and greater use of pregnancy-specific, daily process, and skills-based approaches. There is promise in continuing this area of research, particularly in the possible translation of consistent findings to effective interventions, but only if the conceptual basis and methodological quality of research improve.
Health Psychology Review 01/2014; 8(1):70-94. DOI:10.1080/17437199.2012.752659 · 6.75 Impact Factor
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