The proapoptotic BCL-2 family member BIM mediates motoneuron loss in a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

University of Santiago, Chile, CiudadSantiago, Santiago Metropolitan, Chile
Cell Death and Differentiation (Impact Factor: 8.39). 08/2007; 14(7):1386-9. DOI: 10.1038/sj.cdd.4402166
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: A mild heat shock (HS) preconditioning and acquisition of thermotolerance protects cells against a variety of cytotoxic agents that otherwise induce apoptosis. Here we tested whether there is a molecular link between HS preconditioning and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis. ER stress results from a loss of ER lumen homeostasis, culminating in an accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in the ER and activation of unfolded protein response (UPR). Unresolved, ER stress leads to activation of BH3-only proteins, mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, caspase activation and apoptotic cell death. HS preconditioning (1 h at 42 °C) induced a rapid increase in HSPA1 (HSP70) levels which remained elevated for at least 48 h post-HS. HS preconditioning significantly reduced BAX, caspase activation and apoptosis in cell cultures treated with the ER stress-inducing agents thapsigargin (TG) and tunicamycin (TM). HS-mediated protection was found to be due to regulation of the BH3-only protein BIM. Further, overexpression of HSPA1 could not mimic the effect of HS on BIM expression, suggesting that other HS factors may play a role in inhibiting ER stress-induced apoptosis by regulating BIM.
    09/2014; 4. DOI:10.1016/j.fob.2014.09.004
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    ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of motoneurons in the spinal cord, brainstem and motor cortex. Mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene represent a frequent genetic determinant and recapitulate a disease phenotype similar to ALS when expressed in mice. Previous studies using SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice have suggested a paracrine mechanism of neuronal loss, in which cytokines and other toxic factors released from astroglia or microglia trigger motoneuron degeneration. Several pro-inflammatory cytokines activate death receptors and may downstream from this activate the Bcl-2 family protein, Bid. We here sought to investigate the role of Bid in astrocyte activation and non-cell autonomous motoneuron degeneration. We found that spinal cord Bid protein levels increased significantly during disease progression in SOD1(G93A) mice. Subsequent experiments in vitro indicated that Bid was expressed at relatively low levels in motoneurons, but was enriched in astrocytes and microglia. Bid was strongly induced in astrocytes in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines or exposure to lipopolysaccharide. Experiments in bid-deficient astrocytes or astrocytes treated with a small molecule Bid inhibitor demonstrated that Bid was required for the efficient activation of transcription factor nuclear factor-κB in response to these pro-inflammatory stimuli. Finally, we found that conditioned medium from wild-type astrocytes, but not from bid-deficient astrocytes, was toxic when applied to primary motoneuron cultures. Collectively, our data demonstrate a new role for the Bcl-2 family protein Bid as a mediator of astrocyte activation during neuroinflammation, and suggest that Bid activation may contribute to non-cell autonomous motoneuron degeneration in ALS.
    Neurobiology of Disease 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.nbd.2014.06.008 · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pharmacological activation of autophagy is becoming an attractive strategy to induce the selective degradation of aggregate-prone proteins. Recent evidence also suggests that autophagy impairment may underlie the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. Mutations in the gene encoding SOD1 (superoxide disumutase 1) trigger familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), inducing its misfolding and aggregation and the progressive loss of motoneurons. It is still under debate whether autophagy has a protective or detrimental role in ALS. Here we evaluate the impact of BECN1/Beclin 1, an essential autophagy regulator, in ALS. BECN1 levels were upregulated in both cells and animals expressing mutant SOD1. To evaluate the impact of BECN1 to the pathogenesis of ALS in vivo, we generated mutant SOD1 transgenic mice heterozygous for Becn1. We observed an unexpected increase in life span of mutant SOD1 transgenic mice haploinsufficient for Becn1 compared with littermate control animals. These effects were accompanied by enhanced accumulation of SQSTM1/p62 and reduced levels of LC3-II, and an altered equilibrium between monomeric and oligomeric mutant SOD1 species in the spinal cord. At the molecular level, we detected an abnormal interaction of mutant SOD1 with the BECN1-BCL2L1 complex that may impact autophagy stimulation. Our data support a dual role of BECN1 in ALS and depict a complex scenario in terms of predicting the effects of manipulating autophagy in a disease context.
    Autophagy 05/2014; 10(7). DOI:10.4161/auto.28784 · 11.42 Impact Factor


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