Molecular mechanism of human Nrf2 activation and degradation: role of sequential phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2.
ABSTRACT Nrf2 is a key transcription factor in the cellular response to oxidative stress. In this study we identify two phosphorylated forms of endogenous human Nrf2 after chemically induced oxidative stress and provide evidence that protein kinase CK2-mediated sequential phosphorylation plays potential roles in Nrf2 activation and degradation. Human Nrf2 has a predicted molecular mass of 66 kDa. However, immunoblots showed that two bands at 98 and 118 kDa, which are identified as phosphorylated forms, are increased in response to Nrf2 inducers. In addition, human Nrf2 was found to be a substrate for CK2 which mediated two steps of phosphorylation, resulting in two forms of Nrf2 migrating with differing M(r) at 98 kDa (Nrf2-98) and 118 kDa (Nrf2-118). Our results support a role in which calmodulin binding regulates CK2 activity, in that cold (25 degrees C) Ca(2+)-free media (cold/Ca(2+)-free) decreased both cellular calcium levels and CK2-calmodulin binding and induced Nrf2-118 formation, the latter of which was prevented by CK2-specific inhibitors. Gel shift assays showed that the Nrf2-118 generated under cold/Ca(2+)-free conditions does not bind to the antioxidant response element, indicating that Nrf2-98 has transcriptional activity. In contrast, Nrf2-118 is more susceptible to degradation. These results provide evidence for phosphorylation by CK2 as a critical controlling factor in Nrf2-mediated cellular antioxidant response.
Article: Ca2+-dependent dephosphorylation of kinesin heavy chain on beta-granules in pancreatic beta-cells. Implications for regulated beta-granule transport and insulin exocytosis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The specific biochemical steps required for glucose-regulated insulin exocytosis from beta-cells are not well defined. Elevation of glucose leads to increases in cytosolic [Ca2+]i and biphasic release of insulin from both a readily releasable and a storage pool of beta-granules. The effect of elevated [Ca2+]i on phosphorylation of isolated beta-granule membrane proteins was evaluated, and the phosphorylation of four proteins was found to be altered by [Ca2+]i. One (a 18/20-kDa doublet) was a Ca2+-dependent increase in phosphorylation, and, surprisingly, three others (138, 42, and 36 kDa) were Ca2+-dependent dephosphorylations. The 138-kDa beta-granule phosphoprotein was found to be kinesin heavy chain (KHC). At low levels of [Ca2+]i KHC was phosphorylated by casein kinase 2, but KHC was rapidly dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 2B beta (PP2Bbeta) as [Ca2+]i increased. Inhibitors of PP2B specifically reduced the second, microtubule-dependent, phase of insulin secretion, suggesting that dephosphorylation of KHC was required for transport of beta-granules from the storage pool to replenish the readily releasable pool of beta-granules. This is distinct from synaptic vesicle exocytosis, because neurotransmitter release from synaptosomes did not require a Ca2+-dependent KHC dephosphorylation. These results suggest a novel mechanism for regulating KHC function and beta-granule transport in beta-cells that is mediated by casein kinase 2 and PP2B. They also implicate a novel regulatory role for PP2B/calcineurin in the control of insulin secretion downstream of a rise in [Ca2+]i.Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2002; 277(27):24232-42. · 4.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: CK2 (formerly termed "casein kinase 2") is a ubiquitous, highly pleiotropic and constitutively active Ser/Thr protein kinase whose implication in neoplasia, cell survival, and virus infection is supported by an increasing number of arguments. Here an updated inventory of 307 CK2 protein substrates is presented. More than one-third of these are implicated in gene expression and protein synthesis as being either transcriptional factors (60) or effectors of DNA/RNA structure (50) or translational elements. Also numerous are signaling proteins and proteins of viral origin or essential to virus life cycle. In comparison, only a minority of CK2 targets (a dozen or so) are classical metabolic enzymes. An analysis of 308 sites phosphorylated by CK2 highlights the paramount relevance of negatively charged side chains that are (by far) predominant over any other residues at positions n+3 (the most crucial one), n+1, and n+2. Based on this signature, it is predictable that proteins phosphorylated by CK2 are much more numerous than those identified to date, and it is possible that CK2 alone contributes to the generation of the eukaryotic phosphoproteome more so than any other individual protein kinase. The possibility that CK2 phosphosites play some global role, e.g., by destabilizing alpha helices, counteracting caspase cleavage, and generating adhesive motifs, will be discussed.The FASEB Journal 04/2003; 17(3):349-68. · 5.71 Impact Factor