Photochemically induced cerebral ischemia in a mouse model

Department of Neurosurgery, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju 501-757, South Korea. <>
Surgical Neurology (Impact Factor: 1.67). 07/2007; 67(6):620-5; discussion 625. DOI: 10.1016/j.surneu.2006.08.077
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT MCAO has been widely used to produce ischemic brain lesions. The lesions induced by MCAO tend to be variable in size because of the variance in the collateral blood supply found in the mouse brain.
We modified the rat photothrombosis model for use in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to focal cerebral ischemia by photothrombosis of cortical microvessels. Cerebral infarction was produced by intraperitoneal injection of rose bengal, a photosensitive dye, and by focal illumination through the skull. Motor impairment was assessed by the accelerating rotarod and staircase tests. The brain was perfusion fixed for histologic determination of infarct volume 4 weeks after stroke.
The lesion was located in the frontal and parietal cortex and the underlying white matter was partly affected. A relatively constant infarct volume was achieved 1 month after photothrombosis. The presence of the photothrombotic lesion significantly impaired the motor performance as measured by the rotarod and staircase tests. Our findings show that photothrombotic infarction in mice is highly reproducible in size and location.
This procedure can provide a simple model of cerebral infarction for a unilateral motor cortex lesion. In addition, it can provide a suitable model for the study of potential neuroprotective and therapeutic agents in human stroke.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: (19)F magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was recently introduced as a promising technique for in vivo cell tracking. In the present study we compared (19)F MRI with iron-enhanced MRI in mice with photothrombosis (PT) at 7 Tesla. PT represents a model of focal cerebral ischemia exhibiting acute vessel occlusion and delayed neuroinflammation. Perfluorocarbons (PFC) or superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO) were injected intravenously at different time points after photothrombotic infarction. While administration of PFC directly after PT induction led to a strong (19)F signal throughout the entire lesion, two hours delayed application resulted in a rim-like (19)F signal at the outer edge of the lesion. These findings closely resembled the distribution of signal loss on T2-weighted MRI seen after SPIO injection reflecting intravascular accumulation of iron particles trapped in vessel thrombi as confirmed histologically. By sequential administration of two chemically shifted PFC compounds 0 and 2 hours after illumination the different spatial distribution of the (19)F markers (infarct core/rim) could be visualized in the same animal. When PFC were applied at day 6 the fluorine marker was only detected after long acquisition times ex vivo. SPIO-enhanced MRI showed slight signal loss in vivo which was much more prominent ex vivo indicative for neuroinflammation at this late lesion stage. Our study shows that vessel occlusion can be followed in vivo by (19)F and SPIO-enhanced high-field MRI while in vivo imaging of neuroinflammation remains challenging. The timing of contrast agent application was the major determinant of the underlying processes depicted by both imaging techniques. Importantly, sequential application of different PFC compounds allowed depiction of ongoing vessel occlusion from the core to the margin of the ischemic lesions in a single MRI measurement.
    PLoS ONE 12/2011; 6(12):e28143. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0028143 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This work has developed a novel approach to form common carotid artery (CCA) thrombus in rats with a wireless implantable light-emitting diode (LED) device. The device mainly consists of an external controller and an internal LED assembly. The controller was responsible for wirelessly transmitting electrical power. The internal LED assembly served as an implant to receive the power and irradiate light on CCA. The thrombus formation was identified with animal sonography, 7T magnetic resonance imaging, and histopathologic examination. The present study showed that a LED assembly implanted on the outer surface of CCA could induce acute occlusion with single irradiation with 6 mW/cm(2) LED for 4 h. If intermittent irradiation with 4.3-4.5 mW/cm(2) LED for 2 h was shut off for 30 min, then irradiation for another 2 h was applied; the thrombus was observed to grow gradually and was totally occluded at 7 days. Compared with the contralateral CCA without LED irradiation, the arterial endothelium in the LED-irradiated artery was discontinued. Our study has shown that, by adjusting the duration of irradiation and the power intensity of LED, it is possible to produce acute occlusion and progressive thrombosis, which can be used as an animal model for antithrombotic drug development.
    BioMed Research International 06/2014; 2014:724134. DOI:10.1155/2014/724134 · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background This study was designed to determine if electroacupuncture (EA) preconditioning improves tissue outcome and functional outcome following experimentally induced cerebral ischemia in mice. In addition, we investigated whether the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and stromal cell derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) and infarct volume were related with improvement in neurological and motor function by interventions in this study. Methods After treatment with EA at the acupoints ‘Baihui (GV20)’ and ‘Dazhui (GV14)’ for 20 min, BDNF was assessed in the cortical tissues based on Western blot and the SDF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in the plasma determined by ELISA. To assess the protective effects of EA against ischemic injury, the mice received once a day 20 min EA preconditioning for three days prior to the ischemic event. Focal cerebral ischemia was then induced by photothrombotic cortical ischemia. Infarct volumes, neurobehavioral deficit and motor deficit were evaluated 24 h after focal cerebral ischemia. Results The expression of BDNF protein increased significantly from 6 h, reaching a plateau at 12 h after the end of EA treatment in the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, SDF-1α, not VEGF, increased singnificantly from 12 h to 48 h after EA stimulation in the plasma. Moreover, EA preconditioning reduced the infarct volume by 43.5% when compared to control mice at 24 h after photothrombotic cortical ischemia. Consistent with a smaller infarct size, EA preconditioning showed prominent improvement of neurological function and motor function such as vestibule-motor function, sensori-motor function and asymmetric forelimb use. The expression of BDNF colocalized within neurons and SDF-1α colocalized within the cerebral vascular endothelium was observed throughout the ischemic cortex by EA. Conclusions Pretreatment with EA increased the production of BDNF and SDF-1α, which elicited protective effects against focal cerebral ischemia. These results suggest a novel mechanism of EA pretreatment-induced tolerance against cerebral ischemic injury.
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2013; 13(1):22. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-13-22 · 1.88 Impact Factor


Available from