Photochemically induced cerebral ischemia in a mouse model.
ABSTRACT MCAO has been widely used to produce ischemic brain lesions. The lesions induced by MCAO tend to be variable in size because of the variance in the collateral blood supply found in the mouse brain.
We modified the rat photothrombosis model for use in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to focal cerebral ischemia by photothrombosis of cortical microvessels. Cerebral infarction was produced by intraperitoneal injection of rose bengal, a photosensitive dye, and by focal illumination through the skull. Motor impairment was assessed by the accelerating rotarod and staircase tests. The brain was perfusion fixed for histologic determination of infarct volume 4 weeks after stroke.
The lesion was located in the frontal and parietal cortex and the underlying white matter was partly affected. A relatively constant infarct volume was achieved 1 month after photothrombosis. The presence of the photothrombotic lesion significantly impaired the motor performance as measured by the rotarod and staircase tests. Our findings show that photothrombotic infarction in mice is highly reproducible in size and location.
This procedure can provide a simple model of cerebral infarction for a unilateral motor cortex lesion. In addition, it can provide a suitable model for the study of potential neuroprotective and therapeutic agents in human stroke.
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ABSTRACT: Stroke is the third leading cause of human death. Various models have been used to study the mechanisms of tissue damage and neuronal protection. Each model has its advantages and disadvantages. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo), has been widely used, but produces large ischemic lesions of varying size, which is a disadvantage in the study of neuronal protective mechanisms. Photothrombosis provides an alternative model that can produce consistent lesion size. In this model, ischemia is induced by photo-activation of rose bengal in blood flow by green light illumination. Because ischemia can be induced while animals are kept in a stereotaxic device or on the stage of a microscope, this model has become widely used for in vivo study of cellular structure and function. In this study, photothrombosis was generated by using a wide-field epi-fluorescent microscope equipped with a metal halide lamp and ischemia was confirmed by blood flow reduction monitored by laser Doppler flowmetry. We demonstrated, by adjusting the intensity of output light and the size of irradiated area in the cortex, that the photothrombosis model can, with high reproducibility, be used to generate ischemic infarction of various sizes in mouse brains. Using immunostaining and histochemistry of brain sections, our data showed that photothrombosis induced neuronal death and that brain infarct volume was correlated with the power output and the size of irradiated area of the cortex.Am. J. Biomed. Sci. Am. J. Biomed. Sci. 01/2010; 2(2):33-42.
Article: Spectral Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging of localized ischemic stroke in a mouse model.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We report the use of spectral Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging (SDOCTI) for quantitative evaluation of dynamic blood circulation before and after a localized ischemic stroke in a mouse model. Rose Bengal photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used as a noninvasive means for inducing localized ischemia in cortical microvasculature of the mouse. Fast, repeated Doppler optical coherence tomography scans across vessels of interest are performed to record flow dynamic information with high temporal resolution. Doppler-angle-independent flow indices are used to quantify vascular conditions before and after the induced ischemia by the photocoagulation of PDT. The higher (or lower) flow resistive indices are associated with higher (or lower) resistance states that are confirmed by laser speckle flow index maps (of laser speckle imaging). Our in vivo experiments shows that SDOCTI can provide complementary quantified flow information that is an alternative to blood volume measurement, and can be used as a means for cortical microvasculature imaging well suited for small animal studies.Journal of Biomedical Optics 15(6):066006. · 3.16 Impact Factor