Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging of response inhibition in obsessive-compulsive disorder.
ABSTRACT Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been hypothesized to involve inhibitory control dysfunction related to abnormal frontal-striatal-thalamic-cortical (FSTC) circuitry.
We examined the neural substrates of response inhibition in adults with OCD using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a go/no-go task. Participants consisted of 12 adults with OCD and 14 healthy comparison subjects.
During response inhibition, healthy adults showed predominantly right-hemisphere activation including the right inferior frontal gyrus, whereas the patient group showed a more diffuse, bilateral pattern of activation. Furthermore, the OCD group demonstrated less activation than the comparison group in several right-hemisphere regions during response inhibition, including inferior and medial frontal gyri. Symptom severity was inversely correlated with activation in right orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate gyri and positively correlated with thalamic and posterior cortical activations. Neither depressed mood nor medication status could account for the results.
These findings indicate that adults with OCD demonstrate underactivation of FSTC circuitry during response inhibition. Results suggest that the thalamus and related circuitry may play a role in the expression or intensity of OCD symptoms, whereas right frontal subregions may be involved in the suppression of symptoms.
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ABSTRACT: The inconsistent nature of the neuropsychology literature pertaining to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has long been recognized. However, individual studies, systematic reviews, and recent meta-analytic reviews were unsuccessful in establishing a consensus regarding a disorder-specific neuropsychological profile. In an attempt to identify methodological factors that may contribute to the inconsistency that is characteristic of this body of research, a systematic review of methodological factors in studies comparing OCD patients and non-psychiatric controls on neuropsychological tests was conducted. This review covered 115 studies that included nearly 3500 patients. Results revealed a range of methodological weaknesses. Some of these weaknesses have been previously noted in the broader neuropsychological literature, while some are more specific to psychiatric disorders, and to OCD. These methodological shortcomings have the potential to hinder the identification of a specific neuropsychological profile associated with OCD as well as to obscure the association between neurocognitive dysfunctions and contemporary neurobiological models. Rectifying these weaknesses may facilitate replicability, and promote our ability to extract cogent, meaningful, and more unified inferences regarding the neuropsychology of OCD. To that end, we present a set of methodological recommendations to facilitate future neuropsychology research in psychiatric disorders in general, and in OCD in particular. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Psychiatry Research 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.04.025 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ENG, G.K., Sim, K. and Chen, S.H.A. Meta-Analytic Investigations of Structural Grey Matter, Executive Domain-related Functional Activations, and White Matter Diffusivity in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: An Integrative Review. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XX(X) XXX-XXX, XXXX. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating disorder. However, existing neuroimaging findings involving executive function and structural abnormalities in OCD have been mixed. Here we conducted meta-analyses to investigate differences in OCD samples and controls in: Study 1-Grey matter structure; Study 2--Executive function task-related activations during i) response inhibition, ii) interference, and iii) switching tasks; and Study 3-White matter diffusivity. Results showed grey matter differences in the frontal, striatal, thalamus, parietal and cerebellar regions, task domain-specific neural differences in similar regions; and abnormal diffusivity in major white matter regions in OCD samples compared to controls. Our results reported concurrence of abnormal white matter diffusivity with corresponding abnormalities in grey matter and task-related functional activations. Our findings suggested the involvement of other brain regions not included in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical network, such as the cerebellum and parietal cortex, and questioned the involvement of the orbitofrontal region in OCD pathophysiology. Future research is needed to clarify the roles of these brain regions in the disorder. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 03/2015; 52. DOI:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.03.002 · 10.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a serious and often chronically disabling condition. The current dominant model of OCD focuses on abnormalities in prefrontal-striatal circuits that support executive function (EF). While there is growing evidence for EF impairments associated with OCD, results have been inconsistent, making the nature and magnitude of these impairments controversial. The current meta-analysis uses random-effects models to synthesize 110 previous studies that compared participants with OCD to healthy control participants on at least one neuropsychological measure of EF. The results indicate that individuals with OCD are impaired on tasks measuring most aspects of EF, consistent with broad impairment in EF. EF deficits were not explained by general motor slowness or depression. Effect sizes were largely stable across variation in demographic and clinical characteristics of samples, although medication use, age, and gender moderated some effects.03/2015; 3(2):301-330. DOI:10.1177/2167702614534210