Event-Related Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Response Inhibition in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Brain Imaging Laboratory, Departments of Psychiatry and Radiology, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756-0001, USA.
Biological Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 10.26). 11/2007; 62(8):901-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.12.007
Source: PubMed


Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been hypothesized to involve inhibitory control dysfunction related to abnormal frontal-striatal-thalamic-cortical (FSTC) circuitry.
We examined the neural substrates of response inhibition in adults with OCD using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a go/no-go task. Participants consisted of 12 adults with OCD and 14 healthy comparison subjects.
During response inhibition, healthy adults showed predominantly right-hemisphere activation including the right inferior frontal gyrus, whereas the patient group showed a more diffuse, bilateral pattern of activation. Furthermore, the OCD group demonstrated less activation than the comparison group in several right-hemisphere regions during response inhibition, including inferior and medial frontal gyri. Symptom severity was inversely correlated with activation in right orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate gyri and positively correlated with thalamic and posterior cortical activations. Neither depressed mood nor medication status could account for the results.
These findings indicate that adults with OCD demonstrate underactivation of FSTC circuitry during response inhibition. Results suggest that the thalamus and related circuitry may play a role in the expression or intensity of OCD symptoms, whereas right frontal subregions may be involved in the suppression of symptoms.

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    • "Neurocognitive models of OCD propose that obsessions arise due to exaggerated perception of negative consequences following an action which an OCD patient misinterprets as " erroneous " or faulty and compulsions arise due to an inability to inhibit responses in relation to this " error " perception (Menzies et al., 2007; Menzies et al., 2008). Aberrant ACC activity in OCD has also been documented using functional MRI during the performance of executive function tasks of response inhibition and decision making (Koch et al., 2012; Roth et al., 2007; Vandenbroucke & Gabriels, 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Adult patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) have been shown to have gray matter (GM) volume differences from healthy controls in multiple regions - the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), medial frontal gyri (MFG), striatum, thalamus, and superior parietal lobule. However, there is paucity of data with regard to juvenile OCD. Hence, we examined GM volume differences between juvenile OCD patients and matched healthy controls using voxel based morphometry (VBM) with the above apriori regions of interest. Method: Fifteen right handed juvenile patients with OCD and age- sex- handedness- matched healthy controls were recruited after administering the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-KID and the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, and scanned using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner. VBM methodology was followed. Results: In comparison with healthy controls, patients had significantly smaller GM volumes in left ACC. YBOCS total score (current) showed significant negative correlation with GM volumes in bilateral OFC, and left superior parietal lobule. Conclusion: These findings while reiterating the important role of the orbito-fronto-striatal circuitry, also implicate in the parietal lobe - especially the superior parietal lobule as an important structure involved in the pathogenesis of OCD.
    Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry = Journal de l'Academie canadienne de psychiatrie de l'enfant et de l'adolescent 09/2015; 24(2):84-91.
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    • "Neural, cognitive, and clinical findings suggest that failures in cognitive and behavioral inhibition processes (indexed by, e.g., go/no-go and oculomotor tasks) are integral to the neuropsychopathology of OCD (Chamberlain et al., 2005). Neuroimaging evidence suggests that abnormal frontal–striatal–thalamic–cortical circuitry may underlie dysfunctional response inhibition in OCD (Rosenberg et al., 1997a; 1997b; Rosenberg and Keshavan, 1998; Chamberlain et al., 2005, 2006; Maltby et al., 2005; Roth et al., 2007; Lee et al., 2009). Contamination (intense, persistent feeling of having been polluted or infected; Rachman, 2004) concerns are the most common obsessions associated with OCD (Rasmussen and Tsuang, 1986), presenting in up to 50% of OCD patients (Rachman and Hodgson, 1980; Rasmussen and Eisen, 1992). "
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    ABSTRACT: Failure to inhibit recurrent anxiety-provoking thoughts is a central symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Neuroimaging studies suggest inhibitory control and disgust processing abnormalities in patients with OCD. However, the emotional modulation of response inhibition deficits in OCD and their neural correlates remain to be elucidated. For this preliminary study we administered an adapted affective response inhibition paradigm, an emotional go/no-go task, during fMRI to characterize the neural systems underlying disgust-related and fear-related inhibition in nine adults with contamination-type OCD compared to ten matched healthy controls. Participants with OCD had significantly greater anterior insula cortex activation when inhibiting responses to both disgusting (bilateral), and fearful (right-sided) images, compared to healthy controls. They also had increased activation in several frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, but there was no evidence of amygdala activation in OCD or healthy participants and no significant between-group differences in performance on the emotion go/no-go task. The anterior insula appears to play a central role in the emotional modulation of response inhibition in contamination-type OCD to both fearful and disgusting images. The insula may serve as a potential treatment target for contamination-type OCD.
    Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2015.09.019 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    • "The threshold was p < 0.001(AlphaSim-corrected). of OCD patients, the response inhibition related to activity in right OPFC was inversely associated with the OCD symptom severity [45] and the OCD patients showed decrease activation in OPFC during Go/NO-Go and switch tasks [46]. Patients with bvFTD were showed to be linked to levels of disinhibition [47] and worse performance in the flanker task than normal controls [48]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Growing evidence has indicated a potential connection between resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) signal and cognitive performance. However, the relationship between intrinsic neural activity and behavioral interference effect on cognitive control has been poorly understood. In the present study, seventy-eight healthy subjects underwent RS-fMRI and performed Multi-Source Interference Task (MSIT). The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) was measured as an indicator of intrinsic brain activity. The difference in reaction times between interference and control conditions in MSIT was evaluated as interference effect. Then we examined the associations between fALFF and interference effect using partial correlation analysis controlling for age, gender and mean framewise displacement. The results demonstrated that fALFF values in orbital prefrontal cortex (OPFC) and right inferior frontal cortex (IFC) were negatively correlated with the interference effect in MSIT. The findings manifest that OPFC and right IFC may influence the processing efficiency of cognitive conflict and play a crucial role in cognitive control. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Behavioural brain research 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2015.08.014 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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