Event-Related Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Response Inhibition in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Brain Imaging Laboratory, Departments of Psychiatry and Radiology, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756-0001, USA.
Biological Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 10.26). 11/2007; 62(8):901-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.12.007
Source: PubMed


Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been hypothesized to involve inhibitory control dysfunction related to abnormal frontal-striatal-thalamic-cortical (FSTC) circuitry.
We examined the neural substrates of response inhibition in adults with OCD using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a go/no-go task. Participants consisted of 12 adults with OCD and 14 healthy comparison subjects.
During response inhibition, healthy adults showed predominantly right-hemisphere activation including the right inferior frontal gyrus, whereas the patient group showed a more diffuse, bilateral pattern of activation. Furthermore, the OCD group demonstrated less activation than the comparison group in several right-hemisphere regions during response inhibition, including inferior and medial frontal gyri. Symptom severity was inversely correlated with activation in right orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate gyri and positively correlated with thalamic and posterior cortical activations. Neither depressed mood nor medication status could account for the results.
These findings indicate that adults with OCD demonstrate underactivation of FSTC circuitry during response inhibition. Results suggest that the thalamus and related circuitry may play a role in the expression or intensity of OCD symptoms, whereas right frontal subregions may be involved in the suppression of symptoms.

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    • "Neurocognitive models of OCD propose that obsessions arise due to exaggerated perception of negative consequences following an action which an OCD patient misinterprets as " erroneous " or faulty and compulsions arise due to an inability to inhibit responses in relation to this " error " perception (Menzies et al., 2007; Menzies et al., 2008). Aberrant ACC activity in OCD has also been documented using functional MRI during the performance of executive function tasks of response inhibition and decision making (Koch et al., 2012; Roth et al., 2007; Vandenbroucke & Gabriels, 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Adult patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) have been shown to have gray matter (GM) volume differences from healthy controls in multiple regions - the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), medial frontal gyri (MFG), striatum, thalamus, and superior parietal lobule. However, there is paucity of data with regard to juvenile OCD. Hence, we examined GM volume differences between juvenile OCD patients and matched healthy controls using voxel based morphometry (VBM) with the above apriori regions of interest. Method: Fifteen right handed juvenile patients with OCD and age- sex- handedness- matched healthy controls were recruited after administering the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-KID and the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, and scanned using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner. VBM methodology was followed. Results: In comparison with healthy controls, patients had significantly smaller GM volumes in left ACC. YBOCS total score (current) showed significant negative correlation with GM volumes in bilateral OFC, and left superior parietal lobule. Conclusion: These findings while reiterating the important role of the orbito-fronto-striatal circuitry, also implicate in the parietal lobe - especially the superior parietal lobule as an important structure involved in the pathogenesis of OCD.
    Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry = Journal de l'Academie canadienne de psychiatrie de l'enfant et de l'adolescent 09/2015; 24(2):84-91.
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    • "The threshold was p < 0.001(AlphaSim-corrected). of OCD patients, the response inhibition related to activity in right OPFC was inversely associated with the OCD symptom severity [45] and the OCD patients showed decrease activation in OPFC during Go/NO-Go and switch tasks [46]. Patients with bvFTD were showed to be linked to levels of disinhibition [47] and worse performance in the flanker task than normal controls [48]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Growing evidence has indicated a potential connection between resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) signal and cognitive performance. However, the relationship between intrinsic neural activity and behavioral interference effect on cognitive control has been poorly understood. In the present study, seventy-eight healthy subjects underwent RS-fMRI and performed Multi-Source Interference Task (MSIT). The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) was measured as an indicator of intrinsic brain activity. The difference in reaction times between interference and control conditions in MSIT was evaluated as interference effect. Then we examined the associations between fALFF and interference effect using partial correlation analysis controlling for age, gender and mean framewise displacement. The results demonstrated that fALFF values in orbital prefrontal cortex (OPFC) and right inferior frontal cortex (IFC) were negatively correlated with the interference effect in MSIT. The findings manifest that OPFC and right IFC may influence the processing efficiency of cognitive conflict and play a crucial role in cognitive control. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Behavioural brain research 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2015.08.014 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    • "However, due to the study design, it remains unknown if this change in activation occurs secondary to symptom improvement or due to the pharmacological treatment. A second study reported increased activation of multiple cortical and subcortical brain areas during a Go/No Go task in OCD patients treated with SSRIs compared to OCD patients who were not treated with SSRIs (Roth et al., 2007). However, this study was crossectional, included small patient groups and did not study the relationship with disease severity. "
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past 20 years, motor response inhibition and interference control have received considerable scientific effort and attention, due to their important role in behavior and the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. Results of neuroimaging studies indicate that motor response inhibition and interference control are dependent on cortical-striatal-thalamic-cortical (CSTC) circuits. Structural and functional abnormalities within the CSTC circuits have been reported for many neuropsychiatric disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and related disorders, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Tourette's syndrome, and trichotillomania. These disorders also share impairments in motor response inhibition and interference control, which may underlie some of their behavioral and cognitive symptoms. Results of task-related neuroimaging studies on inhibitory functions in these disorders show that impaired task performance is related to altered recruitment of the CSTC circuits. Previous research has shown that inhibitory performance is dependent upon dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin signaling, neurotransmitters that have been implicated in the pathophysiology of these disorders. In this narrative review, we discuss the common and disorder-specific pathophysiological mechanisms of inhibition-related dysfunction in OCD and related disorders.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 06/2014; 8:419. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00419 · 2.99 Impact Factor
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