College students' expectancies for light cigarettes and potential reduced exposure products.

Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA.
American journal of health behavior (Impact Factor: 1.31). 05/2007; 31(4):402-10. DOI: 10.5555/ajhb.2007.31.4.402
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To determine positive and negative beliefs about light cigarettes and potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) among college student smokers and non-smokers.
A web-based survey conducted in October-November 2004 among 424 students rating 5 advertisements for cigarette brands (Marlboro Red, Light, and Ultralight; Quest; Eclipse) on 28 items tapping positive and negative product expectancies.
Marlboro Light and Ultralight were rated more positively and less negatively than their Red counterpart. PREPs showed low positive and negative ratings relative to Marlboro Light. Positive expectancies were significantly related to willingness to try each brand.
Advertising plays a role in influencing how college students view light and PREP cigarette brands.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tobacco use behaviors in the U.S. have changed significantly over the past century. After a steep increase in cigarette use rates over the first half of the 20th century, adult smoking prevalence rates started declining from their peak reached in 1964. Improved understanding of the health risks of smoking has been aided by the U.S. Surgeon General's Reports, issued on a nearly annual basis starting in 1964. Among the many forces driving down smoking prevalence were the recognition of tobacco use as an addiction and cause of cancer, along with concerns about the ill effects of breathing secondhand smoke. These factors contributed to the declining social acceptance of smoking, especially with the advent of legal restrictions on smoking in public spaces, mass media counter-marketing campaigns, and higher taxes on cigarettes. This article reviews some of the forces that have helped change the public image of smoking, focusing on the 50 years since the 1964 Surgeon General's Report on smoking and health. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(1); 32-36. ©2014 AACR.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 01/2014; 23(1):32-6. · 4.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The primary goal of this study was to investigate the factors influencing smokers' decisions to consume light cigarettes. The results can help public health authorities draft appropriate anti-smoking policies for light cigarettes. Methods: In this study we created a probit model using data on 3,939 smokers drawn from a survey compiled in 2000 by the Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health, Executive Yuan in Taiwan. Results: We found several important factors influencing smokers' decisions to consume light cigarettes, including age, gender, educational level, income level, percentage intending to quit smoking, and price. Most importantly, we found that smokers who are concerned about their health are most likely to consume light cigarettes. Conclusions: Our results indicate that most smokers are unaware of the serious health threats posed by light cigarettes. Therefore, we recommend that the ROC government develop education programs targeted toward the typical light cigarette smoker, especially women and those who want to stop smoking. We also recommend that the government increase the tax on light cigarettes and restrict the right of cigarette manufacturers to include such words as "light" or "low-tar" on the labels of their products.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many governments around the world have banned the use of misleading cigarette descriptors such as "light" and "mild" because the cigarettes so labeled were found not to reduce smokers' health risks. However, underlying cigarette design features, which are retained in many brands, likely contribute to ongoing belief that these cigarettes are less harmful by producing perceptions of lightness/smoothness through lighter taste and reduced harshness and irritation. Participants (N = 320) were recruited from the International Tobacco Control U.S. Survey conducted in 2009 and 2010, when they answered questions about smoking behavior, attitudes and beliefs about tobacco products, and key mediators and moderators of tobacco use behaviors. Participants also submitted an unopened pack of their usual brand of cigarettes for analysis using established methods. Own-brand filter ventilation level (M 29%, range 0%-71%) was consistently associated with perceived lightness (p < .001) and smoothness (p = .005) of own brand. Those whose brand bore a light/mild label (55% of participants) were more likely to report their cigarettes were lighter [71.9% vs. 41.9%; χ(2)(2) = 38.1, p < .001] and smoother than other brands [75.5% vs. 68.7%; χ(2)(2) = 7.8, p = .020]. Product design features, particularly filter ventilation, influence smokers' beliefs about product attributes such as lightness and smoothness, independent of package labels. Regulation of cigarette design features such as filter ventilation should be considered as a complement to removal of misleading terms in order to reduce smokers' misperceptions regarding product risks.
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research 08/2013; · 2.48 Impact Factor


Available from
May 23, 2014