Prostate postbrachytherapy seed distribution: comparison of high-resolution, contrast-enhanced, T1- and T2-weighted endorectal magnetic resonance imaging versus computed tomography: initial experience.
ABSTRACT To compare contrast-enhanced, T1-weighted, three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (CEMR) and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2MR) with computed tomography (CT) for prostate brachytherapy seed location for dosimetric calculations.
Postbrachytherapy prostate MRI was performed on a 1.5 Tesla unit with combined surface and endorectal coils in 13 patients. Both CEMR and T2MR used a section thickness of 3 mm. Spiral CT used a section thickness of 5 mm with a pitch factor of 1.5. All images were obtained in the transverse plane. Two readers using CT and MR imaging assessed brachytherapy seed distribution independently. The dependency of data read by both readers for a specific subject was assessed with a linear mixed effects model.
The mean percentage (+/- standard deviation) values of the readers for seed detection and location are presented. Of 1205 implanted seeds, CEMR, T2MR, and CT detected 91.5% +/- 4.8%, 78.5% +/- 8.5%, and 96.1% +/- 2.3%, respectively, with 11.8% +/- 4.5%, 8.5% +/- 3.5%, 1.9% +/- 1.0% extracapsular, respectively. Assignment to periprostatic structures was not possible with CT. Periprostatic seed assignments for CEMR and T2MR, respectively, were as follows: neurovascular bundle, 3.5% +/- 1.6% and 2.1% +/- 0.9%; seminal vesicles, 0.9% +/- 1.8% and 0.3% +/- 0.7%; periurethral, 7.1% +/- 3.3% and 5.8% +/- 2.9%; penile bulb, 0.6% +/- 0.8% and 0.3% +/- 0.6%; Denonvillier's Fascia/rectal wall, 0.5% +/- 0.6% and 0%; and urinary bladder, 0.1% +/- 0.3% and 0%. Data dependency analysis showed statistical significance for the type of imaging but not for reader identification.
Both enumeration and localization of implanted seeds are readily accomplished with CEMR. Calculations with MRI dosimetry do not require CT data. Dose determinations to specific extracapsular sites can be obtained with MRI but not with CT.
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ABSTRACT: Molecular profiling of human biopsies and surgical specimens is frequently complicated by their inherent biological heterogeneity and by the need to conserve tissue for clinical diagnosis. We have developed a set of novel 'tissue print' and 'print-phoresis' technologies to facilitate tissue and tumor-marker profiling under these circumstances. Tissue printing transfers cells and extracellular matrix components from a tissue surface onto nitrocellulose membranes, generating a two-dimensional anatomical image on which molecular markers can be visualized by specific protein and RNA- and DNA-detection techniques. Print-phoresis is a complementary new electrophoresis method in which thin strips from the print are subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, providing a straightforward interface between the tissue-print image and gel-based proteomic techniques. Here we have utilized these technologies to identify and characterize markers of tumor invasion of the prostate capsule, an event generally not apparent to the naked eye that may result in tumor at the surgical margins ('positive margins'). We have also shown that tissue-print technologies can provide a general platform for the generation of marker maps that can be superimposed directly onto histopathological and radiological images, permitting molecular identification and classification of individual malignant lesions.Nature Medicine 02/2005; 11(1):95-101. · 22.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Most evidence suggests that impotence after prostate radiation therapy has a vascular etiology. The corpus cavernosum (CC) and the internal pudendal artery (IPA) are the critical vascular structures related to erectile function. This study suggests that it is feasible to markedly decrease radiation dose to the CC and the IPA and directly determine the impact of dose limitation on potency. Twenty-five patients (10 external beam, 15 brachytherapy) underwent MRI/CT-based treatment planning for prostate cancer. In addition, 10 patients entered on the vessel-sparing protocol underwent a time-of-flight MRI angiography sequence to define the IPA. The distance from the MRI-defined prostate apex to the penile bulb (PB), CC, and IPA was measured and compared to the distance from the CT-defined apex. Doses (D5 and D50) to the PB, CC, and IPA were determined for an 80 Gy external beam course. In 5 patients, CT plans were generated and compared to MRI-based plans. The combination of coronal, sagittal, and axial MRI data sets allowed superior definition of the prostate apex and its relationship to critical vascular structures. The apex to PB distance averaged 1.45 cm (0.36 standard deviation) with a range of 0.7 cm to 2.1 cm. Peak dose (D5) to the proximal CC in the MRI-planned 80 Gy course was 26 (9) Gy (0.36 of CT-planned dose), and peak dose to the IPA was 39 (13) Gy (0.61 of CT-planned dose). The distance between the prostate apex and critical vascular structures is highly variable. Current empiric rules for CT contouring (apex 1.5 cm above PB) overestimate or underestimate the distance between the prostate apex and critical vascular structures. When defined by MRI T2 and MRI angiogram with CT registration, limitation of dose to critical erectile structures is possible, with a more significant gain than has been previously reported using dose limitation by commonly applied intensity modulated radiation therapy studies based on CT imaging. These techniques make "vessel-sparing" prostate radiotherapy feasible.International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 02/2005; 61(1):20-31. · 4.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess acute as well as long-term toxicity after permanent prostate seed implantation. To find predictive clinical or dosimetric factors for side effects in order to work out strategies for improvement. A group of 174 patients with localised prostate cancer was treated with permanent seed implantation between 1999 and 2001, either alone (140 patients) or in combination with external radiotherapy (34 patients). For the majority (114/174, i.e. 66%) a CT was performed four weeks after implantation and analysed in the planning system VariSeed. In the postimplant analysis, dosimetric descriptors (doses, volumes) were determined for the prostate and rectum and compared with the intraoperative values. In addition, a questionnaire was sent to all patients to assess and quantify acute and chronic toxicity (urinary, rectal, sexual) and the impact on subjective acceptance and quality of life (return rate of questionnaires 83%). The derived score changes were correlated with clinical and dosimetric factors. In the mono-brachytherapy group 14% (16/140) required a bladder catheter, of them 8% (9/140) with a manifest urinary obstruction. Long-term rectal toxicity (<5%) and impairment of potency (<30%) are moderate and obviously below other treatment options. Urinary toxicity is dominant with an overall long-term dysuria up to 30% (at a mean observation interval of ten months), and a significant trend to decline with follow-up time. Conversely, the erectile function tends to deteriorate with follow-up time. Nevertheless, quality of life is not significantly reduced and acceptance is high. Our analysis suggests that the main factor for urinary toxicity and impaired erectile function is the dose load to larger portions of the prostate (D(50)>240 Gy), which appears to be attributed to unnecessarily high numbers of seeds (for a fixed activity per seed) and needles. The rectal toxicity is correlated with the high dose regions in the rectum (>/=145 Gy). Urinary toxicity is lower for combined-brachytherapy, while rectal toxicity and impairment of potency are slightly higher. Toxicity spectrum and quality of life after permanent seed implantation for early prostate cancer are acceptable for nearly all patients (98%). To further improve tolerance we should attempt to achieve a better dose homogeneity, i.e. by reducing D(50). Therefore, special attention should be given to D(50) during the real-time planning process. The necessity of more homogeneous dose distributions might imply a reduction of the activity per seed, e.g. from 0.7 mCi down to 0.6 mCi.Radiotherapy and Oncology 10/2004; 73(1):39-48. · 4.52 Impact Factor