Inhibition of influenza viral neuraminidase activity by collectins.
ABSTRACT The collectins, lung surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D), contribute to innate host defense against influenza A virus (IAV) in vivo. Although collectins bind to the viral hemagglutinin (HA) and inhibit early stages of viral infection in vitro, they also bind to the neuraminidase (NA) and inhibit NA activity. We used a variety of NA functional assays, viral strains and recombinant (mutant or wild type) collectins to characterize the mechanism of NA inhibition. NA inhibition by SP-D correlates with binding of its carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) to oligomannose oligosaccharides on the viral hemagglutinin (HA). The effects of SP-D are additive with oseltamivir, consistent with differences in mechanism of action. NA inhibition was observed using fetuin or MDCK cells as a substrate, but not in assays using a soluble sialic acid analogue. Collectin multimerization and CRD binding properties are key determinants for NA inhibition. SP-D had greater NA inhibitory activity than mannose-binding lectin, which in turn had greater activity than SP-A. The markedly greater NA inhibitory activity of SP-D compared to SP-A may partly account for the finding that deletion of the SP-D gene in mice has a greater effect on viral replication in vivo.
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ABSTRACT: Collectins are a group of soluble proteins each of which has collagenous domains and non-collagenous globular domains, the latter containing the consensus residues found in C-type lectins. Members of the collectin family are the serum proteins mannan-binding protein (MBP), conglutinin, CL-43, and the lung-associated proteins surfactant protein A (SP-A) and surfactant protein D (SP-D). MBP and conglutinin have been shown previously to bind to influenza viruses and to inhibit the infectivity and haemagglutinating activity of influenza viruses. We report here that the lung protein SP-A, like MBP, can bind to influenza virus (strain A/X31) through its lectin domain and inhibit the virus-mediated agglutination of red cells. The binding of SP-A or MBP to influenza virus was saturable, concentration-dependent, and required the presence of Ca2+ ions. Ligand-blot analysis, using MBP as ligand, of the virus lysate indicated that MBP binds to a 68 kDa viral species. The 68 kDa species was isolated to homogeneity and was shown to be the viral neuraminidase. The purified 68 kDa species inhibited the binding of both MBP and SP-A to influenza virus.Biochemical Journal 01/1995; 304 ( Pt 2):455-61. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Collectins are secreted collagen-like lectins that bind, agglutinate, and neutralize influenza A virus (IAV) in vitro. Surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D) are collectins expressed in the airway and alveolar epithelium and could have a role in the regulation of IAV infection in vivo. Previous studies have shown that binding of SP-D to IAV is dependent on the glycosylation of specific sites on the HA1 domain of hemagglutinin on the surface of IAV, while the binding of SP-A to the HA1 domain is dependent on the glycosylation of the carbohydrate recognition domain of SP-A. Here, using SP-A and SP-D gene-targeted mice on a common C57BL6 background, we report that viral replication and the host response as measured by weight loss, neutrophil influx into the lung, and local cytokine release are regulated by SP-D but not SP-A when the IAV is glycosylated at a specific site (N165) on the HA1 domain. SP-D does not protect against IAV infection with a strain lacking glycosylation at N165. With the exception of a small difference on day 2 after infection with X-79, we did not find any significant difference in viral load in SP-A(-/-) mice with either IAV strain, although small differences in the cytokine responses to IAV were detected in SP-A(-/-) mice. Mice deficient in both SP-A and SP-D responded to IAV similarly to mice deficient in SP-D alone. Since most strains of IAV currently circulating are glycosylated at N165, SP-D may play a role in protection from IAV infection.Journal of Virology 09/2004; 78(16):8565-72. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Surfactant protein D (SP-D) and serum conglutinin are closely related members of the collectin family of host defense lectins. Although normally synthesized at different anatomic sites, both proteins participate in the innate immune response to microbial challenge. To discern the roles of specific domains in the function of SP-D in vivo, a fusion protein (SP-D/Cong(neck+CRD)) consisting of the NH(2)-terminal and collagenous domains of rat SP-D (rSP-D) and the neck and carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) of bovine conglutinin (Cong) was expressed in the respiratory epithelium of SP-D gene-targeted (SP-D(-/-)) mice. While SP-D/Cong(neck+CRD) fusion protein did not affect lung morphology and surfactant phospholipid levels in the lungs of wild type mice, the chimeric protein substantially corrected the increased lung phospholipids in SP-D(-/-) mice. The SP-D/Cong(neck+CRD) fusion protein also completely corrected defects in influenza A clearance and inhibited the exaggerated inflammatory response that occurs following viral infection. However, the chimeric protein did not ameliorate the ongoing lung inflammation, enhanced metalloproteinase expression, and alveolar destruction that characterize this model of SP-D deficiency. By contrast, a single arm mutant (RrSP-D(Ser15,20)) partially restored antiviral activity but otherwise failed to rescue the deficient phenotype. Our findings directly implicate the CRDs of both SP-D and conglutinin in host defense in vivo. Our findings also strongly suggest that the molecular mechanisms underlying impaired pulmonary host defense and abnormal lipid metabolism are distinct from those that promote ongoing inflammation and the development of emphysema.Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2002; 277(25):22453-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor