Inhibition of influenza viral neuraminidase activity by collectins.
ABSTRACT The collectins, lung surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D), contribute to innate host defense against influenza A virus (IAV) in vivo. Although collectins bind to the viral hemagglutinin (HA) and inhibit early stages of viral infection in vitro, they also bind to the neuraminidase (NA) and inhibit NA activity. We used a variety of NA functional assays, viral strains and recombinant (mutant or wild type) collectins to characterize the mechanism of NA inhibition. NA inhibition by SP-D correlates with binding of its carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) to oligomannose oligosaccharides on the viral hemagglutinin (HA). The effects of SP-D are additive with oseltamivir, consistent with differences in mechanism of action. NA inhibition was observed using fetuin or MDCK cells as a substrate, but not in assays using a soluble sialic acid analogue. Collectin multimerization and CRD binding properties are key determinants for NA inhibition. SP-D had greater NA inhibitory activity than mannose-binding lectin, which in turn had greater activity than SP-A. The markedly greater NA inhibitory activity of SP-D compared to SP-A may partly account for the finding that deletion of the SP-D gene in mice has a greater effect on viral replication in vivo.
Article: Multimerization of surfactant protein D, but not its collagen domain, is required for antiviral and opsonic activities related to influenza virus.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays important roles in the initial innate defense against influenza A virus (IAV). The collagen domain of SP-D is probably critical for its homeostatic functions in vivo and has been implicated in the modulation of macrophage responses to SP-D-ligand complexes. For the current studies, we used a panel of rat SP-D mutants lacking all or part of the collagen domain to more specifically evaluate the contributions of this domain to viral interactions. SP-D multimers lacking the collagenous sequence efficiently neutralized Phil82 IAV, promoted neutrophil uptake of IAV, and also potentiated the IAV-induced neutrophil respiratory burst response. A dodecameric mutant with shortened collagenous arms showed enhanced viral aggregation and neuraminidase inhibition, and an increased capacity to inhibit a partially collectin-resistant strain of IAV. By contrast, truncated molecules lacking an N-terminal and collagen domain showed no detectable antiviral and opsonizing activity, despite preservation of lectin activity and detectable viral binding. Thus, multimerization, which is mediated by the N-peptide, is more important than the collagen domain for efficient viral neutralization and opsonization. However, the structure of the collagen domain significantly influences the anti-viral activity of multimerized forms of SP-D.The Journal of Immunology 01/2009; 181(11):7936-43. · 5.79 Impact Factor
Article: Assessment of the antiviral properties of recombinant porcine SP-D against various influenza A viruses in vitro.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The emergence of influenza viruses resistant to existing classes of antiviral drugs raises concern and there is a need for novel antiviral agents that could be used therapeutically or prophylacticaly. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) belongs to the family of C-type lectins which are important effector molecules of the innate immune system with activity against bacteria and viruses, including influenza viruses. In the present study we evaluated the potential of recombinant porcine SP-D as an antiviral agent against influenza A viruses (IAVs) in vitro. To determine the range of antiviral activity, thirty IAVs of the subtypes H1N1, H3N2 and H5N1 that originated from birds, pigs and humans were selected and tested for their sensitivity to recombinant SP-D. Using these viruses it was shown by hemagglutination inhibition assay, that recombinant porcine SP-D was more potent than recombinant human SP-D and that especially higher order oligomeric forms of SP-D had the strongest antiviral activity. Porcine SP-D was active against a broad range of IAV strains and neutralized a variety of H1N1 and H3N2 IAVs, including 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses. Using tissue sections of ferret and human trachea, we demonstrated that recombinant porcine SP-D prevented attachment of human seasonal H1N1 and H3N2 virus to receptors on epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tract. It was concluded that recombinant porcine SP-D holds promise as a novel antiviral agent against influenza and further development and evaluation in vivo seems warranted.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(9):e25005. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Interactions of alpha-, beta-, and theta-defensins with influenza A virus and surfactant protein D.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We have reported that the alpha-defensins human neutrophil peptides (HNP)-1 and HNP-2 neutralize and aggregate influenza A virus (IAV) and promote uptake of IAV by neutrophils. These alpha-defensins were also shown to bind to surfactant protein (SP)-D and reduce its antiviral activity. In this study, we examined retrocyclin (RC)1 and RC2, humanized versions of the antiviral theta-defensins found in the leukocytes of certain nonhuman primates. RC1 was just as effective as HNP-1-3 in neutralizing IAV, and RC2 and RC101 (an analog of RC1) were more effective. In contrast, human beta-defensins (HBDs) showed less neutralizing activity. Human defensins 5 and 6 (mainly produced by intestinal Paneth cells) had viral neutralizing activity similar to HNP-1-3. Like HNP-1-3, RCs induced viral aggregation and promoted the uptake of IAV by neutrophils. We used surface plasmon resonance to evaluate binding of defensins to SP-D. HBDs, HD6, and HNP-4 bound minimally to SP-D. HNP-1-3 and RCs bound SP-D with high affinity; however, unlike HNP-1 and HNP-2, RCs did not inhibit SP-D antiviral activity. HBDs also did not inhibit antiviral activity of SP-D. Given their strong neutralizing activity and compatibility with SP-D, RCs may provide attractive prototypes for designing therapeutics that can prevent or treat respiratory infections caused by IAV.The Journal of Immunology 07/2009; 182(12):7878-87. · 5.79 Impact Factor