CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells dominate multiple immune evasion mechanisms in early but not late phases of tumor development in a B cell lymphoma model.
ABSTRACT Tumors use a complex set of direct and indirect mechanisms to evade the immune system. Naturally arising CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T regulatory (Treg) cells have been implicated recently in tumor immune escape mechanism, but the relative contribution of these cells to overall tumor progression compared with other immune evasion mechanisms remains to be elucidated. Using the A20 B cell lymphoma as a transplantable tumor model, we demonstrate that this tumor employs multiple direct (expression of immunoinhibitory molecule PD-L1, IDO, and IL-10, and lack of expression of CD80 costimulatory molecule) and indirect (down-regulation of APC function and induction of Treg cells) immune evasion mechanisms. Importantly, Treg cells served as the dominant immune escape mechanism early in tumor progression because the physical elimination of these cells before tumor challenge resulted in tumor-free survival in 70% of mice, whereas their depletion in animals with established tumors had no therapeutic effect. Therefore, our data suggest that Treg cells may serve as an important therapeutic target for patients with early stages of cancer and that more vigorous combinatorial approaches simultaneously targeting multiple immune evasion as well as immunosurveillance mechanisms for the generation of a productive immune response against tumor may be required for effective immunotherapy in patients with advanced disease.
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ABSTRACT: Human B-cell lymphomas, the fourth most common hematologic malignancy, are currently the subject of extensive research. The limited accessibility of biopsies, the heterogeneity among patients, and the subtypes of lymphomas have necessitated the development of animal models to decipher immune escape mechanisms and design new therapies. Here, we summarize the cell lines and murine models used to study lymphomagenesis, the lymphoma microenvironment, and the efficacy of new therapies. These data allow us to understand the role of the immune system in the fight against tumors. Exploring the advantages and limitations of immunocompetent versus immunodeficient models improves our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of tumor genesis and development as well as the fundamental processes governing the interaction of tumors and their host tissues. We posit that these basic preclinical investigations will open up new and promising approaches to designing better therapies.Advances in Hematology 01/2012; 2012:701704. DOI:10.1155/2012/701704
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ABSTRACT: Lymphomas represent a wide group of heterogenic diseases with different biological and clinical behavior. The underlying microenvironment-specific composition seems to play an essential role in this scenario, harboring the ability to develop successful immune responses or, on the contrary, leading to immune evasion and even promotion of tumor growth. Depending on surrounding lymphoid infiltrates, lymphomas may have different prognosis. Moreover, recent evidences have emerged that confer a significant impact of main lymphoma's treatment over microenvironment, with clinical consequences. In this review, we summarize these concepts from a pathological and clinical perspective. Also, the state of the art of lymphoma's anti-idiotype vaccine development is revised, highlighting the situations where this strategy has proven to be successful and eventual clues to obtain better results in the future.BioMed Research International 08/2010; 2010. DOI:10.1155/2010/846872 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Therapeutic vaccines present an attractive alternative to conventional treatments for cancer. However, tumors have evolved various immune evasion mechanisms to modulate innate, adaptive, and regulatory immunity for survival. Therefore, successful vaccine formulations may require a non-toxic immunomodulator or adjuvant that not only induces/stimulates innate and adaptive tumor-specific immune responses, but also overcomes immune evasion mechanisms. Given the paramount role costimulation plays in modulating innate, adaptive, and regulatory immune responses, costimulatory ligands may serve as effective immunomodulating components of therapeutic cancer vaccines. Our laboratory has developed a novel technology designated as ProtEx that allows for the generation of recombinant costimulatory ligands with potent immunomodulatory activities and the display of these molecules on the cell surface in a rapid and efficient manner as a practical and safe alternative to gene therapy for immunomodulation. Importantly, the costimulatory ligands not only function when displayed on tumor cells, but also as soluble proteins that can be used as immunomodulatory components of conventional vaccine formulations containing tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). We herein discuss the application of the ProtEx technology to the development of effective cell-based as well as cell-free conventional therapeutic cancer vaccines.Experimental and Molecular Pathology 07/2009; 86(3):198-207. DOI:10.1016/j.yexmp.2009.01.010 · 2.88 Impact Factor