Early metoprolol administration before coronary reperfusion results in increased myocardial salvage analysis of ischemic myocardium at risk using cardiac magnetic resonance
ABSTRACT Beta-blockers improve clinical outcome when administered early after acute myocardial infarction. However, whether beta-blockers actually reduce the myocardial infarction size is still in dispute. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging can accurately depict the left ventricular (LV) ischemic myocardium at risk (T2-weighted hyperintense region) early after myocardial infarction, as well as the extent of necrosis (delayed gadolinium enhancement). The aim of this study was to determine whether early administration of metoprolol could increase myocardial salvage, measured as the difference between the extent of myocardium at risk and myocardial necrosis.
Twelve Yorkshire pigs underwent a 90-minute left anterior descending coronary occlusion, followed by reperfusion. They were randomized to metoprolol (7.5 mg during myocardial infarction) or placebo. Global and regional LV function, extent of myocardium at risk, and myocardial necrosis were quantified by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging studies performed 4 and 22 days after reperfusion in 10 survivors. Despite similar extent of myocardium at risk in metoprolol- and placebo-treated pigs (30.9% of LV versus 30.6%; P=NS), metoprolol resulted in 5-fold-larger salvaged myocardium (32.4% versus 6.2% of myocardium at risk; P=0.015). The LV ejection fraction significantly improved in metoprolol-treated pigs between days 4 and 22 (37.2% versus 43.0%; P=0.037), whereas it remained unchanged in pigs treated with placebo (35.1% versus 35.0%; P=NS). The extent of myocardial salvage was related directly to LV ejection fraction improvement (P=0.031) and regional LV wall motion recovery (P=0.039) at day 22.
Early metoprolol administration during acute coronary occlusion increases myocardial salvage. The extent of myocardial salvage, measured as the difference between myocardium at risk and myocardial necrosis, was associated with regional and global LV motion improvement.
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ABSTRACT: Heart failure (HF) remains a major cause of death and hospitalization worldwide. Despite medical advances, the prognosis of HF remains poor and new therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. The development of new therapies for HF is hindered by inappropriate or incomplete preclinical studies. In these guidelines, we present a number of recommendations to enhance similarity between HF animal models and the human condition in order to reduce the chances of failure in subsequent clinical trials. We propose different approaches to address safety as well as efficacy of new therapeutic products. We also propose that good practice rules are followed from the outset so that the chances of eventual approval by regulatory agencies increase. We hope that these guidelines will help improve the translation of results from animal models to humans and thereby contribute to more successful clinical trials and development of new therapies for HF.Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research 01/2015; 8(1). DOI:10.1007/s12265-015-9606-8 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Biomarkers are frequently used to estimate infarct size (IS) as an endpoint in experimental and clinical studies. Here, we prospectively studied the impact of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH) on biomarker release in clinical and experimental myocardial infarction (MI). ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients (n=140) were monitored for total creatine kinase (CK) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) over 72 hours postinfarction and were examined by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) at 1 week and 6 months postinfarction. MI was generated in pigs with induced LVH (n=10) and in sham-operated pigs (n=8), and serial total CK and cTnI measurements were performed and CMR scans conducted at 7 days postinfarction. Regression analysis was used to study the influence of LVH on total CK and cTnI release and IS estimated by CMR (gold standard). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to study the discriminatory capacity of the area under the curve (AUC) of cTnI and total CK in predicting LV dysfunction. Cardiomyocyte cTnI expression was quantified in myocardial sections from LVH and sham-operated pigs. In both the clinical and experimental studies, LVH was associated with significantly higher peak and AUC of cTnI, but not with differences in total CK. ROC curves showed that the discriminatory capacity of AUC of cTnI to predict LV dysfunction was significantly worse for patients with LVH. LVH did not affect the capacity of total CK to estimate IS or LV dysfunction. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed significantly higher cTnI content in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes. Peak and AUC of cTnI both significantly overestimate IS in the presence of LVH, owing to the higher troponin content per cardiomyocyte. In the setting of LVH, cTnI release during STEMI poorly predicts postinfarction LV dysfunction. LV mass should be taken into consideration when IS or LV function are estimated by troponin release. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.Journal of the American Heart Association 12/2015; 4(1). DOI:10.1161/JAHA.114.001218 · 2.88 Impact Factor
Circulation Research 02/2015; 116(4):554-556. DOI:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.115.305841 · 11.09 Impact Factor