We investigated participation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in tubulointerstitial fibrosis and correlation between MCP-1 and proteinuria in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats with glomerulonephritis induced by anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibody. WKY rats showed marked proteinuria and severe glomerular crescent formation at 7 days post antibody injection. At 28 days, tubulointerstitial fibrotic lesions were observed, followed by sustained heavy proteinuria and severe tubulointerstitial fibrosis at 56 days. Histological examination revealed that the overlapped immunoreactivities of MCP-1, rat albumin, and p65NF-kappaB were detected in the same tubular segments of nephritic kidney, and a significant positive correlation was observed between proteinuria and MCP-1 expression in the tubulointerstitial fibrosis. ED-1- and CD8-positive cells were also abundant, and there was a good correlation between monocyte/macrophage recruitment and MCP-1 expression in the tubulointerstitial area. These results suggest that MCP-1 participates in the progression of tubulointerstitial fibrosis, through massive albuminuria, which is accompanied by marked monocyte/macrophage recruitment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CCL2/CCR2 chemokine/receptor axis directs the chemotaxis of infiltrating monocytes/macrophages and T cells and plays a pivotal role in tissue damage and fibrosis in kidney diseases. The eradication of the activated leucocytes should diminish the production of inflammatory mediators, limit tissue damage and ameliorate disease. A recombinant fusion protein (OPL-CCL2-LPM) comprised of the human CCL2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) chemokine fused to a truncated form of the enzymatically active A1 domain of Shigella dysenteriae holotoxin (SA1) has been developed. The CCL2 portion binds specifically to CCR2-bearing leucocytes and the fusion protein enters the cells, where the SA1 moiety inhibits protein synthesis resulting in cell death. The compound was tested in a model of anti-thymocyte serum (ATS)-induced mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (ATS-GN). Male rats were injected with ATS on day 0 and treated intravenously with vehicle, 50 or 100 microg/kg of OPL-CCL2-LPM Q2D from days 2, 4, 6 and 8. Urine and blood were collected on days 0, 5 and 9. Animals were sacrificed on day 9. No treatment-related effects on body weight or signs of clinical toxicity were observed. Urine protein levels were decreased in treated animals. At the highest dose, histopathological analyses of kidney sections revealed maximum reductions of 36, 31, 30 and 24% for macrophage count, glomerular lesions, alpha-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin respectively. These results indicate a significant protective effect of OPL-CCL2-LPM in this model of nephritis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Targeting cell surface antigens or receptors with lytic monoclonal antibodies and specific ligand-directed fusion proteins in order to eliminate cancer cells has been in development for at least forty years. More recently, leukocyte populations known to drive a host of allergic, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases have been targeted. For fusion protein constructs, a number of different classes of cellular toxins have been fused to a variety of ligands such as monoclonal antibodies, growth factors and cytokines. Although there has been great clinical success using these biologics, there are some limitations. The target antigens are often expressed on normal cells leading to side effects. More recently, several groups have explored the use of chemokine receptor ligands and antibodies to target leukocytes and cancer cells. There are a number of inducible chemokine receptors that are only up-regulated in inflammation and their expression is relatively restricted to pathological cells. This confers another degree of specificity on biologics that are composed of chemokine receptor targeting agents. This review discusses articles, recent patents and patent applications that explore the selective depletion of pathological cells by targeting chemokine receptors with chemokine ligands, monoclonal antibodies and different bispecific constructs as a therapeutic strategy for allergic, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.
Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery 12/2009; 3(3):177-87. DOI:10.2174/187221309789257423
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surfactant protein D (SP-D), a member of the C-type lectin (collectin) protein family, plays a critical role in innate host defence against various microbial pathogens and in the modulation of inflammatory responses in the lung. However, little is known about its expression and biological function in the kidney. In this work, we studied SP-D expression in human kidney and cultured human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2), and examined the effect of SP-D on proinflammatory cytokine production after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulus. We observed the expression of both SP-D mRNA and protein in human kidney and in-vitro HK-2 cells by immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. To explore the potential role of SP-D in the pathogenesis of tubulointerstitial fibrosis in kidney infection, we examined the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in HK-2 cells after LPS treatment. Results showed that the level of MCP-1 in the conditioned medium increased significantly when HK-2 cells were cultured with LPS (>0·1 µg/ml) for 8 h. Of interest, LPS treatment inhibited SP-D expression in HK-2 cells. Furthermore, over-expression of SP-D reduced significantly the LPS-induced expression of MCP-1 in transfected cells. These findings suggest that SP-D in the kidney functions as an anti-inflammatory factor in renal tubular epithelial cells and may modulate tubulointerstitial fibrosis in kidney.
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