Prevalence of dementia in Chamorros on Guam: relationship to age, gender, education, and APOE.
ABSTRACT To estimate the prevalence of dementia and its clinical subtypes among Chamorros on Guam aged 65 years or older and to examine associations with age, gender, education, and APOE genotype.
Chamorros, the indigenous people of Guam, had a high incidence of ALS and parkinsonism-dementia complex (PDC), in the 1950s. Over the next 50 years, ALS incidence declined markedly, but PDC only slightly. The prevalence of late life dementia in Chamorros and its relationship to ALS/PDC are unknown.
Island-wide population-based survey of Chamorros aged 65 years or older as of January 1, 2003. Two-stage assessment: cognitive and motor screening, followed by neurologic and psychometric evaluation. Data were reviewed at consensus conference to make clinical diagnoses.
Of 2,789 Chamorros aged 65 years or older, 73% were enrolled; 27% declined participation, died before contact or screening, or moved off Guam. The point prevalence of all-cause dementia on February 1, 2004, was 12.2%. Prevalence data for subtypes were as follows: Guam dementia (clinically equivalent to AD), 8.8%; PDC, 1.5%; pure vascular dementia, 1.3%; other, 0.6%. The prevalence of dementia rose exponentially with age. Low education was significantly associated with dementia, but gender was not. There was a trend toward higher PDC prevalence among men. The APOE epsilon4 allele was not associated with dementia.
The prevalence of dementia among elderly Chamorros is relatively high. Guam dementia is the most common diagnosis and exceeds parkinsonism-dementia complex. Age and low education are strongly associated with dementia, but gender and APOE epsilon4 are not. Incidence studies will allow risk factors for dementia to be clarified.
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ABSTRACT: Only one previous follow-up study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and parkinsonism in Papua, Indonesia has been carried out since a survey undertaken in 1962-1981 by Gajdusek and colleagues. Therefore, to clarify the clinical epidemiology of ALS and parkinsonism in the southern coastal region of Papua, the clinical characteristics and prevalence of the diseases in this region were examined and assessed. Cases of ALS and parkinsonism were clinically examined during a 2001-2012 survey in Bade and other villages along the Ia, Edera, Dumut and Obaa rivers in Papua, Indonesia. Possible, probable and definite ALS was diagnosed clinically by certified neurologists based on El Escorial criteria. The criteria for a diagnosis of parkinsonism were the presence of at least two of the four following signs: tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural impairment with a progressive course. During the survey, 46 cases of ALS and/or parkinsonism were diagnosed within a population range of 7000 (2001-2002) to 13 900 (2007-2012). The 46 cases consisted of 17 probable-definite cases of ALS, including three with cognitive impairment (CI), 13 cases of overlapping possible, probable or definite ALS and parkinsonism, including five with CI, and 16 cases of parkinsonism, including one with CI. The crude point prevalence rate of pure ALS was estimated to be at least 73 (95% CI 0 to 156) to 133 (27 to 240)/100 000 people and that of overlapping ALS and parkinsonism at least 53 (0 to 126) to 98 (2 to 193)/100 000 in 2007, or 2010 in some regions. While the prevalence of ALS in Papua has decreased over the past ∼30-35 years, it remains higher than the global average. There was a high prevalence of overlapping ALS, parkinsonism and CI, which has also been previously reported in Guam and Kii.BMJ Open 04/2014; 4(4):e004353. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cognitive impairment, including dementia, is a major health concern with the increasing aging population. Preventive measures to delay cognitive decline are of utmost importance. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent cause of dementia, increasing in prevalence from <1% below the age of 60 years to >40% above 85 years of age.BMC Public Health 06/2014; 14(1):643. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE High-prevalence foci of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and parkinsonism-dementia complex (PDC) exist in Japanese on the Kii Peninsula of Japan and in the Chamorros of Guam. Clinical and neuropathologic similarities suggest that the disease in these 2 populations may be related. Recent findings showed that some of the Kii Peninsula ALS cases had pathogenic C9orf72 repeat expansions, a genotype that causes ALS in Western populations. OBJECTIVES To perform genotyping among Guam residents to determine if the C9orf72 expanded repeat allele contributes to ALS-PDC in this population and to evaluate LRRK2 for mutations in the same population. DESIGN AND SETTING Case-control series from neurodegenerative disease research programs on Guam that screened residents for ALS, PDC, and dementia. PARTICIPANTS Study participants included 24 with ALS and 22 with PDC and 43 older control subjects with normal cognition ascertained between 1956 and 2006. All but one participant were Chamorro, the indigenous people of Guam. A single individual of white race/ethnicity with ALS was ascertained on Guam during the study. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Participants were screened for C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat length. Participants with repeat numbers in great excess of 30 were considered to have pathogenic repeat expansions. LRRK2 was screened for point mutations by DNA sequencing. RESULTS We found a single individual with an expanded pathogenic hexanucleotide repeat. This individual of white race/ethnicity with ALS was living on Guam at the time of ascertainment but had been born in the United States. All Chamorro participants with ALS and PDC and control subjects had normal repeats, ranging from 2 to 17 copies. No pathogenic LRRK2 mutations were found. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Unlike participants with ALS from the Kii Peninsula, C9orf72 expansions do not cause ALS-PDC in Chamorros. Likewise, LRRK2 mutations do not cause Guam ALS-PDC.JAMA neurology. 04/2013;