Effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy on myocardial gene expression in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy.
ABSTRACT Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves echocardiographic measures of ventricular structure and function in the failing heart. To determine whether or not these changes are representative of true biologic reverse ventricular remodeling or simply an artifact of an improved contraction pattern, we evaluated changes in myocardial gene expression typical of reverse remodeling before and after chronic CRT.
Optimally medically treated patients with nonischemic heart failure meeting standard clinical criteria for CRT were enrolled. Before implantation of a CRT device, baseline echocardiogram and endomyocardial biopsies were obtained. These studies were repeated after 6 months of CRT. Using quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, the amount of messenger RNA for selected genes regulating contractile function (sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase, alpha- and beta-myosin heavy chain [MHC] isoforms, phospholamban [PLB]), and pathologic hypertrophy (beta-MHC and atrial natriuretic peptide [ANP]) was determined from biopsy samples. Changes in gene expression (baseline to 6 months) were determined and correlated to changes in echocardiographic remodeling parameters. Ten patients were enrolled in the study, with 7 completing both baseline and follow-up biopsies and echocardiograms. On average, a significant increase was observed in alpha-MHC and PLB gene expression from baseline to 6 months (P = .016 for both). Beta-MHC levels tended to decrease with CRT (P = .078). Increased alpha-MHC levels correlated best with decreases in left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (P = .073, r = -0.71) and reductions in mitral regurgitation. No significant correlation between ejection fraction and gene expression was found.
These changes in myocardial gene expression support the occurrence of reverse remodeling during chronic CRT. The changes are similar to those reported previously with beta-blockade, but were seen on top of standard drug therapies for heart failure.
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ABSTRACT: We sought to compare the short- and long-term clinical effects of atrial synchronous pre-excitation of one (univentricular) or both ventricles (biventricular), that provide cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). In patients with heart failure (HF) who have a ventricular conduction delay, CRT improves systolic hemodynamic function. The clinical benefit of CRT is still being investigated. Forty-one patients were randomized to four weeks of first treatment with biventricular or univentricular stimulation, followed by four weeks without treatment, and then four weeks of a second treatment with the opposite stimulation. The best CRT stimulation was continued for nine months. Cardiac resynchronization therapy was optimized by hemodynamic testing at implantation. The primary end points were exercise capacity measures. Data were analyzed by two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. The left ventricle was selected for univentricular pacing in 36 patients. The clinical effects of univentricular and biventricular CRT were not significantly different. The results of each method were pooled to assess sequential treatment effects. Oxygen uptake during bicycle exercise increased from 9.48 to 10.4 ml/kg/min at the anaerobic threshold (p = 0.03) and from 12.5 to 14.3 ml/kg/min at peak exercise (p < 0.001) with the first treatment, and from 10.0 to 10.7 ml/kg/min at the anaerobic threshold (p = 0.2) and from 13.4 to 15.2 ml/kg/min at peak exercise (p = 0.002) with the second treatment. The 6-min walk distance increased from 342 m at baseline to 386 m after the first treatment (p < 0.001) and to 416 m after the second treatment (p = 0.03). All improvements persisted after 12 months of therapy. Cardiac resynchronization therapy produces a long-term improvement in the clinical symptoms of patients with HF who have a ventricular conduction delay. The differences between optimized biventricular and univentricular therapy appear to be small for short-term treatment.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 06/2002; 39(12):2026-33. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The cardiac SR Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2a) regulates intracellular Ca(2+)-handling and thus, plays a crucial role in initiating cardiac contraction and relaxation. SERCA2a may be modulated through its accessory phosphoprotein phospholamban or by direct phosphorylation through Ca(2+)/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II). As an inhibitory component phospholamban, in its dephosphorylated form, inhibits the Ca(2+)-dependent SERCA2a function, while protein kinase A dependent phosphorylation of the phospho-residues serine-16 or Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of threonine-17 relieves this inhibition. Recent evidence suggests that direct phosphorylation at residue serine-38 in SERCA2a activates enzyme function and enhances Ca(2+)-reuptake into the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). These effects that are mediated through phosphorylation result in an overall increased SR Ca(2+)-load and enhanced contractility. In human heart failure patients, as well as animal models with induced heart failure, these modulations are altered and may result in an attenuated SR Ca(2+)-storage and modulated contractility. It is also believed that abnormalities in Ca(2+)-cycling are responsible for blunting the frequency potentiation of contractile force in the failing human heart. Advanced gene expression and modulatory approaches have focused on enhancing SERCA2a function via overexpressing SERCA2a under physiological and pathophysiological conditions to restore cardiac function, cardiac energetics and survival rate.Cardiovascular Research 02/2003; 57(1):20-7. · 5.94 Impact Factor