Clinical characteristics and outcome of patients diagnosed with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: A 5-year review
ABSTRACT The goal of this article was to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients diagnosed with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES).
We conducted a retrospective review of patients diagnosed with PNES in a 5-year period.
Fifty patients with PNES were identified, giving an estimated incidence of 0.91/100,000 per annum. Thirty-eight were included for review, 15 of whom were male (39%). Eighteen patients had been diagnosed with epilepsy as well as PNES (47%). We demonstrated a gender difference in our patients, with males having higher seizure frequencies, more antiepileptic drug use, and a longer interval before diagnosis of PNES. Females were diagnosed with other conversion disorders more often than males. Impaired social function was observed in PNES, as was resistance to psychological interventions with a subsequent poor response to treatments.
PNES remains a difficult condition to treat, and may affect males in proportions higher than those described in previous studies.
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ABSTRACT: Long-term EEG in adults includes three modalities: sleep deprived-EEG lasting 1 to 3hours, 24hours ambulatory-EEG and continuous prolonged video-EEG lasting from several hours to several days. The main indications of long-term EEG are: syndromic classification of epilepsy; search for interictal discharges when epilepsy is suspected or for the purpose of therapeutic evaluation; positive diagnosis of paroxysmal clinical events; and pre-surgical evaluation of drug-resistant epilepsy. Sleep deprived-EEG and ambulatory-EEG are indicated to detect interictal discharges in order to validate a syndromic classification of epilepsy when standard EEG is negative. These exams can help in evaluating treatment efficacy, especially when clinical evaluation is difficult. Long-term video EEG is indicated for drug-resistant epilepsy, to analyze electro-clinical correlations in a pre-surgical evaluation context, and to refine a positive diagnosis when paroxysmal clinical events are frequent. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.Neurophysiologie Clinique/Clinical Neurophysiology 01/2015; 45(1). DOI:10.1016/j.neucli.2014.11.004 · 1.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: the occurrence of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) is estimated to be between 2 to 33 cases in every 100,000 inhabitants. The number of patients with PNES reaches 19% of those treated as epileptics. Patients with PNES are treated as if they had intractable epilepsy, with unsatisfactory results even after medication treatment is used to its maximum. The aim of this study is to present the effects of individual psychoanalytical treatment in patients with PNES, assessing its impact in the evolution of the clinical picture and its association with sex, time of disease, social, psychological and professional harm, as well as going through with treatment. The case base was composed of 37 patients with PNES. The diagnosis was reached with video-EEG monitoring. Psychoanalytical treatment was carried out through 12 months of weekly sessions timed for around 50-minutes each, in a total of 48 individual sessions. This study found a high rate of success in the treatment of PNES patients. 29.7% (n=11) of patients had cessation or cure of symptoms and 51.4% (n=19) had a decrease in the number of episodes. There is an association between cessation or decrease in the number of episodes and sex (p<0.01), religion (p<0.01) and concluding treatment (p<0.01). Individual psychoanalytical treatment applied to patients with PNES is considered effective and can be an essential form of assistance for the reduction or cessation of episodes.Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira 12/2014; 60(6):577-84. DOI:10.1590/1806-9282.60.06.018 · 0.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Electroencephalography allows the functional analysis of electrical brain cortical activity and is the gold standard for analyzing electrophysiological processes involved in epilepsy but also in several other dysfunctions of the central nervous system. Morphological imaging yields complementary data, yet it cannot replace the essential functional analysis tool that is EEG. Furthermore, EEG has the great advantage of being non-invasive, easy to perform and allows control tests when follow-up is necessary, even at the patient's bedside. Faced with the advances in knowledge, techniques and indications, the Société de Neurophysiologie Clinique de Langue Française (SNCLF) and the Ligue Française Contre l'Épilepsie (LFCE) found it necessary to provide an update on EEG recommendations. This article will review the methodology applied to this work, refine the various topics detailed in the following chapters. It will go over the summary of recommendations for each of these chapters and underline proposals for writing an EEG report. Some questions could not be answered by the review of the literature; in those cases, an expert advice was given by the working and reading groups in addition to the guidelines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.Neurophysiologie Clinique/Clinical Neurophysiology 11/2014; 44(6). DOI:10.1016/j.neucli.2014.10.001 · 1.46 Impact Factor