Papillary thyroid carcinoma in a patient with sarcoidosis treated with minocycline

Department of General Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, the Netherlands.
The Netherlands Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.97). 06/2007; 65(5):185-7.
Source: PubMed


Long-term treatment with minocycline is occasionally associated with the development of black thyroid syndrome in which thyroid cancer is frequently found. Here, we report a patient with cutaneous, pulmonary and thyroid sarcoidosis who developed papillary thyroid carcinoma in the presence of a black thyroid syndrome after being treated with minocycline for 2.5 years.

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    • "Although minocycline has been suggested as the cause of the pigmentation in many cases [4] [5] [6], it has also been noted to occur subsequent to infection [7], perhaps due to treatment with other tetracycline derivatives [3]. Prescribed as an antibiotic for acne vulgaris, minocycline has shown a rare yet seemingly specific relationship with black thyroid [8]. The drug reacts with thyroid peroxidase and forms a black pigment which could be readily seen in histological preparations [6, 9–11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. Black thyroid is a rare pigmented change seen almost exclusively in patients upon minocycline ingestion, and the process has previously been thought to be generally benign. There have been 61 reported cases of black thyroid. We are aware of 13 cases previously reported in association with thyroid carcinoma. This paper reports six patients with black thyroid pigmentation in association with thyroid carcinoma. Design. The medical records of six patients who were diagnosed with black thyroid syndrome, all of whom underwent thyroid surgery, were reviewed. Data on age, gender, race, preoperative fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA), thyroid function levels, and pathology reports were collected. Main Outcome. The mean age was 60 years. There were 5 females, 4 of whom were African American. All patients were clinically and biochemically euthyroid. Black pigmentation was not diagnosed in preoperative FNA, and only one patient had a preoperative diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The other patients underwent surgery and were found to have black pigmentation of the thyroid associated with carcinoma. Conclusions. FNA does not diagnose black thyroid, which is associated with thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid glands with black pigmentation deserve thorough pathologic examination, including several sections of each specimen.
    International Journal of Endocrinology 11/2010; 2010(6044):681647. DOI:10.1155/2010/681647 · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Black thyroid is an uncommon phenomenon of black pigmentation of thyroid parenchyma induced by chronic minocycline therapy. Thyroid tumors associated with black pigmented thyroid are rare. We describe here a 42-year-old woman with a black thyroid associated with hyalinizing trabecular tumor (HTT). The patient presented with a palpable left-sided thyroid nodule. She had taken minocycline for aphthous stomatitis and an oral ulcer for 9 years. The findings of fine needle aspiration biopsy and BRAF mutation analysis suggested a papillary carcinoma. The patient underwent a near-total thyroidectomy with central compartment node dissection. The surgical specimen showed a diffuse black thyroid and a 2-cm non-pigmented, well-circumscribed nodule in the left thyroid. Histopathologically, numerous black pigmented follicular epithelial cells and colloid were seen throughout the thyroid parenchyma, and the nodule was composed of elongated, polygonal cells in trabecular arrangement and dense hyaline stromas. The tumor cells showed a strong positive cytoplasmic reaction to Ki 67. All of these findings suggested a HTT, or a hyalinizing trabecular variant of papillary carcinoma, arising in a black thyroid. To our knowledge, this is the first case of black thyroid associated with HTT.
    Endocrine Journal 09/2008; 55(6):1109-12. DOI:10.1507/endocrj.K08E-191 · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Black thyroid is a rare condition. It has been considered to be pathognomonic of chronic minocycline ingestion for more than 30 years, although it can also occur in patients with hemochromatosis, ochronosis, mucoviscidosis, and hemorrhage. A possible association of black thyroid with thyroid cancer has been considered, but no direct causal relationship has been established. Hence, the purpose of this article was to identify the malignant potential of such glands.MethodsA retrospective medical chart review was performed on 433 patients who underwent thyroid surgery at Tulane University Medical Center from 2001 to 2008. Patients were grouped based on pathology: (1) benign, (2) papillary carcinoma, and (3) non-papillary thyroid carcinoma.ResultsAt surgery, 63 patients (15%) with black thyroid gland were found to have thyroid nodules. Among these nodules, 22 (35%) were benign, 21 (33%) contained papillary thyroid cancer, and 20 (32%) had a non-papillary thyroid malignancy. Nodules in black thyroids were associated with higher risk of malignancy than nodules in non-black thyroids (p = .0001). Further analysis of the papillary thyroid carcinoma group showed no statistical difference in regard to tumor size or evidence of multifocality of disease.Conclusion The finding of a black thyroid gland is unusual and disconcerting. To our knowledge, this is the first study aimed at documenting the malignant potential of black thyroid glands. This report documents that the risk of malignancy is higher in black thyroid compared to non-black thyroid glands. Furthermore, among those with papillary thyroid cancer, the presence of the pigment did not correlate with malignancy, multifocality, or tumor size. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2011
    Head & Neck 12/2011; 33(12):1735 - 1738. DOI:10.1002/hed.21656 · 2.64 Impact Factor
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