Biological uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by Macoma balthica from sediment amended with activated carbon

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (Impact Factor: 3.23). 06/2007; 26(5):980-7. DOI: 10.1897/06-278R1.1
Source: PubMed


This work characterizes the efficacy of activated carbon amendment in reducing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioavailability to clams (Macoma balthica) from field-contaminated sediment (Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, San Francisco Bay, CA, USA). Test methods were developed for the use of clams to investigate the effects of sediment amendment on biological uptake. Sediment was mixed with activated carbon for one month. Bioaccumulation tests (28 d) were employed to assess the relationships between carbon dose and carbon particle size on observed reductions in clam biological uptake of PCBs. Extraction and cleanup protocols were developed for the clam tissue. Efficacy of activated carbon treatment was found to increase with both increasing carbon dose and decreasing carbon particle size. Average reductions in bioaccumulation of 22, 64, and 84% relative to untreated Hunters Point sediment were observed for carbon amendments of 0.34, 1.7, and 3.4%, respectively. Average bioaccumulation reductions of 41, 73, and 89% were observed for amendments (dose = 1.7% dry wt) with carbon particles of 180 to 250, 75 to 180, and 25 to 75 microm, respectively, in diameter, indicating kinetic phenomena in these tests. Additionally, a biodynamic model quantifying clam PCB uptake from water and sediment as well as loss through elimination provided a good fit of experimental data. Model predictions suggest that the sediment ingestion route contributed 80 to 95% of the PCB burdens in the clams.

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    • "That is, with the same sediment and AC type, tests showed absence of effects as well as significant effects of AC on lipids content that could not be explained by AC dose (Janssen et al. 2010; Janssen et al. 2011). Sediment amendment with less than 5% AC did not have an effect on lipid contents in a number of species (i.e., the clam Macoma nasuta, the amphipod L. plumulosus, the snail Hinia reticulate and N. nitidus, and the worms Nereis diversicolor, L. variegatus, and Nereis spp.) (Millward et al. 2005; Cornelissen et al. 2006; Cho et al. 2007; McLeod et al. 2007; Josefsson et al. 2012). When effects on growth, lipid, and total biomass were observed, altered bioavailability of nutrients in sediment was suggested as a potential mechanism (Voparil and Mayer 2000; Millward et al. 2005; Janssen et al. 2012; Kupryianchyk et al. 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Contaminated sediments can pose serious threats to human health and the environment by acting as a source of toxic chemicals. The amendment of contaminated sediments with strong sorbents like activated carbon (AC) is a rapidly developing strategy to manage contaminated sediments. To date, a great deal of attention has been paid to the technical and ecological features and implications of sediment remediation with AC, although science in this field still is rapidly evolving. The present paper aims to provide an update on the recent literature on these features, and for the first time provides a comparison of sediment remediation with AC to other sediment management options, emphasising their full-scale application. First, a qualitative overview of (dis)advantages of current alternatives to remediate contaminated sediments is presented. Subsequently, AC treatment technology is critically reviewed, including current understanding of the effectiveness and ecological safety for the use of AC in natural systems. Finally, this information is used to provide a novel framework for supporting decisions concerning sediment remediation and beneficial re-use. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 02/2015; 11(2). DOI:10.1002/ieam.1606 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    • "Our porewater concentration results suggest that up to 62% of deposit feeder tissue concentrations can be attributed to equilibrium with porewater. Others, using a biodynamic model (McLeod et al., 2008, 2007) have estimated that deposit-feeding clams receive even less (w10%) of their HOC body burden from porewater, and showed that HOC body burdens in these organisms more closely resemble congener profiles in sediment, rather than porewater . Hence, we emphasize that while PE can be more useful than sediment geochemistry in predicting correlated biota concentrations , their use does not imply that all HOCs are taken up through diffusive water-biota partitioning. "
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    ABSTRACT: Sediment and polyethylene sampler-based estimates of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations in Newark Bay, New Jersey (USA) benthic biota were compared. Biota concentrations based on sediment were estimated using an organic carbon (OC)-water partitioning model and an OC and black carbon (BC)-water dual model. Biota concentrations based on polyethylene were estimated from samplers deployed in the Newark Bay water column and samplers immersed in a sediment/porewater slurry in the laboratory. Porewater samplers provided the best estimates of biota concentrations (within 3.1×), with best results achieved for deposit-feeders (within 1.6×). Polyethylene deployed in deep water also provided good estimates of biota concentrations (within 4×). By contrast, OC-water partitioning overestimated biota concentrations by up to 7×, while OC and BC combined underestimated biota concentrations by up to 13×. We recommend passive samplers such as polyethylene for estimating concentrations of hydrophobic organic contaminants in field biota given its simplicity and relatively lower uncertainty compared to sediment equilibrium partitioning.
    Environmental Pollution 12/2013; 186C:172-179. DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2013.12.002 · 4.14 Impact Factor
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    • "There is no information available from biochar-enriched soils, but ample research with activated carbons indicates that remediation of pollution in sediments is possible even at large scale (Cho et al., 2009). Activated carbon has been shown to decrease availability of pollutants to diverse sets of fauna such as clams (McLeod et al., 2007), polychaetes (Neanthes arenaceodentata ) and an amphipod (Leptocheirus plumulosus) (Millward et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Soil amendment with biochar is evaluated globally as a means to improve soil fertility and to mitigate climate change. However, the effects of biochar on soil biota have received much less attention than its effects on soil chemical properties. A review of the literature reveals a significant number of early studies on biochar-type materials as soil amendments either for managing pathogens, as inoculant carriers or for manipulative experiments to sorb signaling compounds or toxins. However, no studies exist in the soil biology literature that recognize the observed large variations of biochar physico-chemical properties. This shortcoming has hampered insight into mechanisms by which biochar influences soil microorganisms, fauna and plant roots. Additional factors limiting meaningful interpretation of many datasets are the clearly demonstrated sorption properties that interfere with standard extraction procedures for soil microbial biomass or enzyme assays, and the confounding effects of varying amounts of minerals. In most studies, microbial biomass has been found to increase as a result of biochar additions, with significant changes in microbial community composition and enzyme activities that may explain biogeochemical effects of biochar on element cycles, plant pathogens, and crop growth. Yet, very little is known about the mechanisms through which biochar affects microbial abundance and community composition. The effects of biochar on soil fauna are even less understood than its effects on microorganisms, apart from several notable studies on earthworms. It is clear, however, that sorption phenomena, pH and physical properties of biochars such as pore structure, surface area and mineral matter play important roles in determining how different biochars affect soil biota. Observations on microbial dynamics lead to the conclusion of a possible improved resource use due to co-location of various resources in and around biochars. Sorption and thereby inactivation of growth-inhibiting substances likely plays a role for increased abundance of soil biota. No evidence exists so far for direct negative effects of biochars on plant roots. Occasionally observed decreases in abundance of mycorrhizal fungi are likely caused by concomitant increases in nutrient availability, reducing the need for symbionts. In the short term, the release of a variety of organic molecules from fresh biochar may in some cases be responsible for increases or decreases in abundance and activity of soil biota. A road map for future biochar research must include a systematic appreciation of different biochar-types and basic manipulative experiments that unambiguously identify the interactions between biochar and soil biota. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
    Soil Biology and Biochemistry 09/2011; 43(9-9):1812-1836. DOI:10.1016/j.soilbio.2011.04.022 · 3.93 Impact Factor
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