Article

Patient and kidney survival by dialysis modality in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury.

Intensive Care Unit, Department of Anesthesiology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo - Japan.
The International journal of artificial organs (Impact Factor: 1.76). 05/2007; 30(4):281-92.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Using a large, international cohort, we sought to determine the effect of initial technique of renal replacement therapy (RRT) on the outcome of acute renal failure (ARF) in the intensive care unit (ICU). We enrolled 1218 patients treated with continuous RRT (CRRT) or intermittent RRT (IRRT) for ARF in 54 ICUs in 23 countries. We obtained demographic, biochemical and clinical data and followed patients to either death or hospital discharge. Information was analyzed to assess the independent impact of treatment choice on survival and renal recovery. Patients treated first with CRRT (N=1006, 82.6%) required vasopressor drugs and mechanical ventilation more frequently compared to those receiving IRRT (N=212, 17.4%), (p<0.0001). Unadjusted hospital survival was lower (35.8% vs. 51.9%, p<0.0001). However, unadjusted dialysis-independence at hospital discharge was higher after CRRT (85.5% vs. 66.2%, p<0.0001). Multivariable logistic regression showed that choice of CRRT was not an independent predictor of hospital survival or dialysis-free hospital survival. However, the choice of CRRT was a predictor of dialysis independence at hospital discharge among survivors (OR: 3.333, 95% CI: 1.845 - 6.024, p<0.0001). Further adjustment using a propensity score did not significantly change these results. We conclude that worldwide, the choice of CRRT as initial therapy is not a predictor of hospital survival or dialysis-free hospital survival but is an independent predictor of renal recovery among survivors.

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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Choice of renal replacement therapy (RRT) modality may affect renal recovery after acute kidney injury (AKI). We sought to compare the rate of dialysis dependence among severe AKI survivors according to the choice of initial renal replacement therapy (RRT) modality applied [continuous (CRRT) or intermittent (IRRT)]. METHODS: Systematic searches of peer-reviewed publications in MEDLINE and EMBASE were performed (last update July 2012). All studies published after 2000 reporting dialysis dependence among survivors from severe AKI requiring RRT were included. Data on follow-up duration, sex, age, chronic kidney disease, illness severity score, vasopressors, and mechanical ventilation were extracted when available. Results were pooled using a random-effects model. RESULTS: We identified 23 studies: seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 16 observational studies involving 472 and 3,499 survivors, respectively. Pooled analyses of RCTs showed no difference in the rate of dialysis dependence among survivors (relative risk, RR 1.15 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.78-1.68], I (2) = 0 %). However, pooled analyses of observational studies suggested a higher rate of dialysis dependence among survivors who initially received IRRT as compared with CRRT (RR 1.99 [95 % CI 1.53-2.59], I (2) = 42 %). These findings were consistent with adjusted analyses (performed in 7/16 studies), which found a higher rate of dialysis dependence in IRRT-treated patients [odds ratio (OR) 2.2-25 (5 studies)] or no difference (2 studies). CONCLUSIONS: Among AKI survivors, initial treatment with IRRT might be associated with higher rates of dialysis dependence than CRRT. However, this finding largely relies on data from observational trials, potentially subject to allocation bias, hence further high-quality studies are necessary.
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