Mitochondrial oxidant signalling in Alzheimer's disease.
ABSTRACT The role of free radicals in Alzheimer disease pathophysiology has been appreciated for a long time. Originally, radicals were considered as causative of oxidative damage. More recently their role as signalling molecules in this, as well as in other fields of free radical biology, has been underscored. Mitochondria are both generators and targets of radical damage in aging. In this paper we review evidence that radicals generated in mitochondria in the presence of A beta are signals that trigger both the mitochondrial and the extra-mitochondrial pathways of apoptosis. There are gender specific differences in mitochondrial A beta toxicity: mitochondria from young (but not from old) females appear to be protected. 17-beta Estradiol or phytoestrogens like genistein prevent the formation of oxidants by mitochondria and protect against mitochondrial A beta toxicity. Experiments reported here indicate that phytoestrogens might have a role in the prevention of Alzheimer's disease.
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ABSTRACT: The chemical structure, classification, source, metabolism, physiological and health effects of plant phytoestrogens and mechanisms of their action are reviewed. The available knowledge suggest that phytoestrogens can affect a number of physiological and pathological processes related to reproduction, bone remodelling, skin, cardiovascular, nervous, immune systems and metabolism. Due to these effects, phytoestrogens and phytoestrogen-containing diet can be useful for the prevention and treatment of menopausal symptoms, skin aging, osteoporosis, cancer, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, immune and metabolic diseases. Possible problems in understranding and application of phytoestrogens (multiple targets and multiple estrogen receptor -dependent and -independent mechanisms of action, the discrepancy between the results of experimental and clinical studies, adequate source of phytoestrogen) have been discussed.European Journal of Pharmacology 08/2014; 741. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.07.057 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lafora disease (LD, OMIM 254780, ORPHA501) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of glycogen-like intracellular inclusions called Lafora bodies and caused, in the vast majority of cases, by mutations in either EPM2A or EPM2B genes, encoding respectively laforin and malin. In the last years, several reports have revealed molecular details of these two proteins and have identified several processes affected in LD, but the pathophysiology of the disease still remains largely unknown. Since autophagy impairment has been reported as a characteristic treat in both Lafora disease cell and animal models, and as there is a link between autophagy and mitochondrial performance, we sought to determine if mitochondrial function could be altered in those models. Using fibroblasts from LD patients, deficient in laforin or malin, we found mitochondrial alterations, oxidative stress and a deficiency in antioxidant enzymes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Similar results were obtained in brain tissue samples from transgenic mice deficient in either the EPM2A or EPM2B genes. Furthermore, in a proteomic analysis of brain tissue obtained from Epm2b-/-mice, we observed an increase in a modified form of peroxiredoxin-6, an antioxidant enzyme involved in other neurological pathologies, thus corroborating an alteration of the redox condition. These data support that oxidative stress produced by an increase in ROS production and an impairment of the antioxidant enzyme response to this stress play an important role in development of LD.Free Radical Biology and Medicine 05/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12035-014-8747-0 · 5.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative process associated with oxidative stress. In the past, it was claimed that all neuronal lesions involved in the onset and progression of AD were related to oxidative stress.Today, we know that intracellular amyloid beta (Ab) could play a central role in the pathophysiology of the disease. Ab binds to heme groups in mitochondrial membranes causing electron transport chain impairment and loss of respiratory function. The experimental evidence of such oxidative stress leads to the basis for treatment of AD with antioxidants. Many clinical trials have been developed to clarify whether antioxidants are beneficial in AD treatment. However, the results obtained in no way confirm that antioxidants are an effective AD therapy. More research is necessary to clarify this point.10/2011; 1(4):8–14. DOI:10.5530/ax.2011.4.3