Effect of exchange of amino acid residues of the surface region of the PST-01 protease on its organic solvent-stability.
ABSTRACT The PST-01 protease from an organic solvent tolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa has high stability and activity in the presence of various organic solvents. The structure gene of the PST-01 protease was amplified by the error-prone PCR method. The mutated proteases were incubated in the presence of acetonitrile. By measuring remaining activities, two kinds of mutated PST-01 proteases of which the stabilities were changed were selected. These mutations hardly changed the profile of the activity and stability at various pHs. Their activity and stability at higher temperatures were slightly lower than those of the wild-type PST-01 protease. The stabilities of the mutated enzymes in the presence of various organic solvents were greatly reduced. In both the mutated PST-01 proteases, amino acids located at the surface of the enzyme had been substituted.
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ABSTRACT: Esterase BioH is a critical enzyme for Biotin synthesis in Escherichia coli, which has been previously found to be active in the acylation of secondary alcohols and amines. Directed evolution towards improved acylation activity requires a high-throughput screening method. The aim of this study is to explore whether the acylation activity of BioH can be improved by directed evolution of its hydrolysis activity. A colorimetric method based on p-nitrophenyl butyrate hydrolysis was adopted in the high-throughput determination of hydrolysis activity. The wild-type BioH showed a hydrolysis activity of 18 U/mg, and the specific activities for alpha-phenylethanol and alpha-phenylethylamine acylation were 12.8 U/mg and 3.5 U/mg, respectively. After two rounds of directed evolution, seven mutants with improved hydrolysis activity were obtained, among which, K213E, Q70L/M170T and M197L/K213E also showed improvement in acylation activity. To further improve the acylation activity, site mutations were generated in different combinations at the four hot spots Q70L, M170T, M197L and K213E. Among the resulting mutants, Q70L/M197L/K213E showed the highest activity in alpha-phenylethylamine acylation with a 120% improvement, while Q70L/K213E had the highest alpha-phenylethanol acylation activity, which was improved by 70%. The results demonstrated that directed evolution of the hydrolysis activity might be a possible approach to improve the acylation activity of the esterase BioH.Biochemical Engineering Journal 10/2013; 79:182-186. DOI:10.1016/j.bej.2013.07.016 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Enzymes from extremophilic microorganisms usually catalyze chemical reactions in non-standard conditions. Such conditions promote aggregation, precipitation, and denaturation, reducing the activity of most non-extremophilic enzymes, frequently due to the absence of sufficient hydration. Some extremophilic enzymes maintain a tight hydration shell and remain active in solution even when liquid water is limiting, e.g. in the presence of high ionic concentrations, or at cold temperature when water is close to the freezing point. Extremophilic enzymes are able to compete for hydration via alterations especially to their surface through greater surface charges and increased molecular motion. These properties have enabled some extremophilic enzymes to function in the presence of non-aqueous organic solvents, with potential for design of useful catalysts. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge of extremophilic enzymes functioning in high salinity and cold temperatures, focusing on their strategy for function at low water activity. We discuss how the understanding of extremophilic enzyme function is leading to the design of a new generation of enzyme catalysts and their applications to biotechnology.02/2012; 8(1):4. DOI:10.1186/2046-9063-8-4
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ABSTRACT: Many researchers have reported on the optimization of protease production; nevertheless, only a few have reported on the optimization of the production of organic solvent-tolerant proteases. Ironically, none has reported on thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease to date. The aim of this study was to isolate the thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease and identify the culture conditions which support its production. The bacteria of genus Bacillus are active producers of extra-cellular proteases, and the thermostability of enzyme production by Bacillus species has been well-studied by a number of researchers. In the present study, the Bacillus subtilis strain Rand was isolated from the contaminated soil found in Port Dickson, Malaysia. A thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease producer had been identified as Bacillus subtilis strain Rand, based on the 16S rRNA analysis conducted, as well as the morphological characteristics and biochemical properties. The production of the thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease was optimized by varying various physical culture conditions. Inoculation with 5.0% (v/v) of (AB600 = 0.5) inoculum size, in a culture medium (pH 7.0) and incubated for 24 h at 37 degrees C with 200 rpm shaking, was the best culture condition which resulted in the maximum growth and production of protease (444.7 U/ml; 4042.4 U/mg). The Rand protease was not only stable in the presence of organic solvents, but it also exhibited a higher activity than in the absence of organic solvent, except for pyridine which inhibited the protease activity. The enzyme retained 100, 99 and 80% of its initial activity, after the heat treatment for 30 min at 50, 55, and 60 degrees C, respectively. Strain Rand has been found to be able to secrete extra-cellular thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease into the culture medium. The protease exhibited a remarkable stability towards temperature and organic solvent. This unique property makes it attractive and useful to be used in industrial applications.Microbial Cell Factories 05/2009; 8:20. DOI:10.1186/1475-2859-8-20 · 4.25 Impact Factor