Effect of exchange of amino acid residues of the surface region of the PST-01 protease on its organic solvent-stability.
ABSTRACT The PST-01 protease from an organic solvent tolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa has high stability and activity in the presence of various organic solvents. The structure gene of the PST-01 protease was amplified by the error-prone PCR method. The mutated proteases were incubated in the presence of acetonitrile. By measuring remaining activities, two kinds of mutated PST-01 proteases of which the stabilities were changed were selected. These mutations hardly changed the profile of the activity and stability at various pHs. Their activity and stability at higher temperatures were slightly lower than those of the wild-type PST-01 protease. The stabilities of the mutated enzymes in the presence of various organic solvents were greatly reduced. In both the mutated PST-01 proteases, amino acids located at the surface of the enzyme had been substituted.
Article: Optimization of physical factors affecting the production of thermo-stable organic solvent-tolerant protease from a newly isolated halo tolerant Bacillus subtilis strain Rand.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Many researchers have reported on the optimization of protease production; nevertheless, only a few have reported on the optimization of the production of organic solvent-tolerant proteases. Ironically, none has reported on thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease to date. The aim of this study was to isolate the thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease and identify the culture conditions which support its production. The bacteria of genus Bacillus are active producers of extra-cellular proteases, and the thermostability of enzyme production by Bacillus species has been well-studied by a number of researchers. In the present study, the Bacillus subtilis strain Rand was isolated from the contaminated soil found in Port Dickson, Malaysia. A thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease producer had been identified as Bacillus subtilis strain Rand, based on the 16S rRNA analysis conducted, as well as the morphological characteristics and biochemical properties. The production of the thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease was optimized by varying various physical culture conditions. Inoculation with 5.0% (v/v) of (AB600 = 0.5) inoculum size, in a culture medium (pH 7.0) and incubated for 24 h at 37 degrees C with 200 rpm shaking, was the best culture condition which resulted in the maximum growth and production of protease (444.7 U/ml; 4042.4 U/mg). The Rand protease was not only stable in the presence of organic solvents, but it also exhibited a higher activity than in the absence of organic solvent, except for pyridine which inhibited the protease activity. The enzyme retained 100, 99 and 80% of its initial activity, after the heat treatment for 30 min at 50, 55, and 60 degrees C, respectively. Strain Rand has been found to be able to secrete extra-cellular thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease into the culture medium. The protease exhibited a remarkable stability towards temperature and organic solvent. This unique property makes it attractive and useful to be used in industrial applications.Microbial Cell Factories 05/2009; 8:20. · 3.55 Impact Factor
Article: Enhanced activity and stability in the presence of organic solvents by increased active site polarity and stabilization of a surface loop in a metalloprotease.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Salinivibrio zinc-metalloprotease (SVP) is an enzyme which was isolated from Salinivibrio proteolyticus, a moderately halophilic species from a hypersaline lake in Iran. A195E and G203D mutants were constructed to increase polarity near the active site in order to preserve the hydration layer against organic solvents [dimethylformamide (DMF), methanol, isopropanol and n-propanol]. A268P was constructed to stabilize a surface loop far from the active site and A195E/A268P was constructed to investigate the combined effects of these two mutations. Results showed that relative C(50) values of A195E increased to approximately 26 and 11% in DMF and methanol whereas an increase of approximately 32 and 41% was observed in the presence of isopropanol and n-propanol. The irreversible thermoinactivation rate (k(i)) for A195E was estimated to be 60 and 130 (x10(-3) min(-1)) in the presence of DMF and n-propanol, respectively, while k(i) for SVP was 90 and 190 (x10(-3) min(-1)). G203D exhibited similar k(i) as A195E in the presence of methanol and isopropanol, but the calculated k(i) in the presence of DMF and n-propanol was 70 and 160 (x10(-3) min(-1)), respectively. A268P and A268P/A195E variants marginally increased the thermoresistance of the enzyme in this condition.Journal of biochemistry 08/2010; 148(2):231-8. · 1.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recombinant elastase strain K overexpressed from E. coli KRX/pCon2(3) was purified to homogeneity by a combination of hydrophobic interaction chromatography and ion exchange chromatography, with a final yield of 48% and a 25-fold increase in specific activity. The purified protein had exhibited a first ever reported homodimer size of 65 kDa by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF, a size which is totally distinct from that of typically reported 33 kDa monomer from P. aeruginosa. The organic solvent stability experiment had demonstrated a stability pattern which completely opposed the rules laid out in previous reports in which activity stability and enhancement were observed in hydrophilic organic solvents such as DMSO, methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol. The high stability and enhancement of the enzyme in hydrophilic solvents were explained from the view of alteration in secondary structures. Elastinolytic activation and stability were observed in 25 and 50% of methanol, respectively, despite slight reduction in α-helical structure caused upon the addition of the solvent. Further characterization experiments had postulated great stability and enhancement of elastase strain K in broad range of temperatures, pHs, metal ions, surfactants, denaturing agents and substrate specificity, indicating its potential application in detergent formulation.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2011; 12(9):5797-814. · 2.60 Impact Factor