Psychogenic polydipsia review: etiology, differential, and treatment.
ABSTRACT Psychogenic polydipsia (PPD), a clinical disorder characterized by polyuria and polydipsia, is a common occurrence in inpatients with psychiatric disorders. The underlying pathophysiology of this syndrome is unclear, and multiple factors have been implicated, including a hypothalamic defect and adverse medication effects. Hyponatremia in PPD can progress to water intoxication and is characterized by symptoms of confusion, lethargy, and psychosis, and seizures or death. Evaluation of psychiatric patients with polydipsia warrants a comprehensive evaluation for other medical causes of polydipsia, polyuria, hyponatremia, and the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. The management strategy in psychiatric patients should include fluid restriction and behavioral and pharmacologic modalities.
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence of polydipsia among patients with schizophrenia is 6%-20%. Around 10%-20% of patients with polydipsia may develop hyponatremia and even complicated with rhabdomyolysis. Here we presented a 40-year-old man with schizophrenia, who had received paliperidone 15 mg/d for more than one year, and polydipsia was noted. In Jan, 2014, he developed hyponatremia (Na 113 mEq/L) with consciousness disturbance. After 3% NaCl (500 cc/d) intravenous supplement for three days, the hyponatremia was corrected, but rhabdomyolysis developed with a substantial elevation in the level of creatine kinase (CK) to 30505 U/L. After hydration, the CK level gradually decreased to 212 U/L. Both the hyponatremia itself and quick supplementation of NaCl can cause rhabdomyolysis. If rhabdomyolysis is not recognized, insufficient hydration or water restriction for polydipsia may further exacerbate the rhabdomyolysis with a lethal risk. In this case, we highlight the possible complication of rhabdomyolysis with polydipsia-induced hyponatremia. In addition to monitoring the serum sodium level, the monitoring of CK is also important; and switching of antipsychotic may improve the polydipsia.World journal of psychiatry. 12/2014; 4(4):150-2.
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ABSTRACT: Schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) is an established model for studying compulsive behaviour in rats. Serotoninergic drugs effectively reduce compulsive drinking on SIP, and high compulsive drinker rats selected by SIP have shown differences in serotoninergic brain activity. However, the specific serotoninergic receptors that modulate compulsive SIP remain unclear.Psychopharmacology 08/2014; · 3.99 Impact Factor
Article: Investigating polyuria.BMJ (online) 12/2013; 347:f6772. · 16.38 Impact Factor