Auditory hallucinations in those populations that do not suffer from schizophrenia.
ABSTRACT The following article discusses the phenomenon of auditory hallucinations in those who do not suffer from schizophrenia. Research has shown the occurrence of auditory hallucinations in the general population to such an extent that they cannot be said to be pathognomonic of psychiatric illness. In addition, it has long been known that certain hallucinatory experiences occur in health, such as hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations. However, there are fundamental differences in the characteristics of these experiences. In the psychiatric population, these tend to be frequent, intrusive, and distressing. In contrast, in the nonclinical population, these are often predominantly positive and nonthreatening. The exact mechanism for the occurrence of auditory hallucinations is not yet known, but it is hoped that through the study of those in health, the mechanisms that underpin pathophysiologic processes in clinical conditions also can be elucidated.
SourceAvailable from: Lucile Rapin[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The little voice inside our head, or inner speech, is a common everyday experience. It plays a central role in human consciousness at the interplay of language and thought. An impressive host of research works has been carried out on inner speech these last fifty years. Here we first describe the phenomenology of inner speech by examining five issues: common behavioural and cerebral correlates with overt speech, different types of inner speech (wilful verbal thought generation and verbal mind wandering), presence of inner speech in reading and in writing, inner signing and voice-hallucinations in deaf people. Secondly, we review the role of inner speech in cognitive performance (i.e. enhancement vs. perturbation). Finally, we consider agency in inner speech and how our inner voice is known to be self-generated and not produced by someone else.Behavioural Brain Research 01/2014; 261:220-239. DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2013.12.034 · 3.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A number of studies have explored hallucinations as complex experiences involving interactions between psychological, biological, and environmental factors and mechanisms. Nevertheless, relatively little attention has focused on the role of culture in shaping hallucinations. This article reviews the published research, drawing on the expertise of both anthropologists and psychologists. We argue that the extant body of work suggests that culture does indeed have a significant impact on the experience, understanding, and labeling of hallucinations and that there may be important theoretical and clinical consequences of that observation. We find that culture can affect what is identified as a hallucination, that there are different patterns of hallucination among the clinical and nonclinical populations, that hallucinations are often culturally meaningful, that hallucinations occur at different rates in different settings; that culture affects the meaning and characteristics of hallucinations associated with psychosis, and that the cultural variations of psychotic hallucinations may have implications for the clinical outcome of those who struggle with psychosis. We conclude that a clinician should never assume that the mere report of what seems to be a hallucination is necessarily a symptom of pathology and that the patient's cultural background needs to be taken into account when assessing and treating hallucinations.Schizophrenia Bulletin 07/2014; 40 Suppl 4(Suppl 4):S213-20. DOI:10.1093/schbul/sbu012 · 8.61 Impact FactorThis article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We wished to replicate evidence that an experimental paradigm of speech illusions is associated with psychotic experiences. Fifty-four patients with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) and 150 healthy subjects were examined in an experimental paradigm assessing the presence of speech illusion in neutral white noise. Socio-demographic, cognitive function and family history data were collected. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was administered in the patient group and the Structured Interview for Schizotypy-Revised (SIS-R), and the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) in the control group. Patients had a much higher rate of speech illusions (33.3% versus 8.7%, ORadjusted: 5.1, 95% CI: 2.3-11.5), which was only partly explained by differences in IQ (ORadjusted: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.4-8.3). Differences were particularly marked for signals in random noise that were perceived as affectively salient (ORadjusted: 9.7, 95% CI: 1.8-53.9). Speech illusion tended to be associated with positive symptoms in patients (ORadjusted: 3.3, 95% CI: 0.9-11.6), particularly affectively salient illusions (ORadjusted: 8.3, 95% CI: 0.7-100.3). In controls, speech illusions were not associated with positive schizotypy (ORadjusted: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.3-3.4) or self-reported psychotic experiences (ORadjusted: 1.4, 95% CI: 0.4-4.6). Experimental paradigms indexing the tendency to detect affectively salient signals in noise may be used to identify liability to psychosis.PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e102520. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0102520 · 3.53 Impact Factor