Prospects for a cognitive-developmental account of psychotic experiences.
ABSTRACT It has recently been recognized that psychosis represents the end-point of abnormal developmental pathways. The neurodevelopmental framework, within which this observation has typically been interpreted, has a number of limitations, particularly its failure to take account of recent advances in our understanding of the psychology of unusual experiences, such as hallucinations and delusions. The purpose of the present review is to highlight the advantages of considering psychosis within the framework of mainstream developmental psychology. The approach we advocate integrates findings from neurodevelopmental research with research on typical cognitive and sociocognitive development and the psychology of psychotic symptoms.
We review selected research on the developmental precursors of psychosis and on the role of cognitive processes in psychotic symptoms, together with relevant literature addressing the development of these processes in healthy children.
Developmental psychology provides clues about the cognitive and sociocognitive abnormalities that may be involved in hallucinations and delusions. An integration of these findings with existing knowledge on the neurodevelopment of psychosis suggests new avenues of research for investigators working at both biological and psychological levels of explanation.
The literature on typical cognitive and sociocognitive development provides a rich source of hypotheses about the ontogenetic pathways leading to psychosis.
- Brain Behavior and Immunity 08/2011; 25. · 6.13 Impact Factor
- Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry - J BEHAV THER EXP PSYCHIAT. 01/2011; 10(10):14-14.
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ABSTRACT: Background There is evidence that people with psychosis display a “jump-to-conclusions” (JTC) reasoning style, and that this bias may be specific to delusions. A “jump-to-perceptions” (JTP) cognitive bias has also been found and is typically linked to hallucinations. However, there is some evidence for an association between JTP and delusions, and its specificity to hallucinations remains unclear. It has been suggested that these biases are related and products of shared cognitive processes. Methods This study examined the symptom specificity of JTC and JTP, and the relationship between them, in a sample of 98 individuals with delusions divided into ‘hallucinators’ (n = 51) and ‘non-hallucinators’ (n = 47). Biases were assessed using the beads task and visual and auditory perceptual tasks. Results As predicted, both groups demonstrated a JTC bias, but the ‘hallucinators’ showed a more pronounced JTP style in both modalities. The presence of JTC and JTP biases did not co-occur: making a decision on the beads task after two or fewer draws was not related to visual JTP, and was associated with a less marked JTP bias in the auditory perceptual task. No differences were found in JTP or JTC between participants with and without a schizophrenia diagnosis. JTP, but not JTC, was associated with the presence of hallucinations. Conclusions These findings suggest that the JTC and JTP biases show specificity to delusions and hallucinations, respectively, and not to diagnosis. There was no evidence that they are the product of shared cognitive processes, further supporting their specificity.Schizophrenia Research 04/2014; · 4.43 Impact Factor