Urinary tract infections in renal transplant recipients.
ABSTRACT Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infectious complication following renal transplantation. The purposes of this study were to determine the causative agents of UTIs among renal transplant recipients and to compare the antibiotic susceptibilities of Escherichia coli strains isolated from renal transplant recipients and complicated community-acquired UTIs. We evaluated 75 episodes of 63 recipients with confirmed UTI who underwent transplantation during the period 1981 to 2006 at our center. Medical records of the patients were reviewed retrospectively. To compare the susceptibility rates of E coli, 226 isolates from nontransplant patients with complicated community-acquired UTIs were also evaluated. Ten episodes (13.3%) occurred in the first month following the transplantation, 11 (14.7%) in the period of the second month to the sixth month, and 54 (72%) after the sixth month of transplantation. Forty-six (61.3%) isolates were E coli. Among these isolates, ciprofloxacin resistance rates were 50% (2/4) in the first month after transplantation, 75% (6/8) in the period of the second month to the sixth month, and 32.4% (11/34) beyond 6 months after transplantation. The resistance rates of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) in the same time periods were 100% (4/4), 87.5% (7/8), and 70.6% (24/34), respectively. The rates of resistance to TMP-SMX among E coli isolated from renal recipients were significantly higher than those in community-acquired complicated UTIs. The increased resistance of urinary pathogens to this agent is a major concern. Although high resistance rates of ciprofloxacin against E coli strains were determined in this group, it was not found to be statistically significant.
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ABSTRACT: Urinary tract infection (UTI) remains one of the main complications after kidney transplantation and it has serious consequences. Fifty-two patients with kidney transplantation were evaluated for UTI at 3-145 days (mean 40.0 days) after surgery.. Forty-two received a graft from a live donor and 10 from a deceased donor. There were 22 female and 30 male patients, aged 11-47 years. Microscopic examinations, leukocyte esterase stick, and urinary culture were performed every third day and weekly after hospitalization. A positive culture was consider when patients presented bacterial counts up to 105 counts. UTI developed in 19/52 (37%) patients at 3-75 days (mean 19.5 days after transplantation. Recurrent infection was observed in 7/52 (13.4%) patients at days 17-65. UTI was more frequent in patients who received deceased grafts compared with live grafts (7/10, 70% vs. 12/42, 28%; p < 0.007). Female patients were more susceptible than male (11/22, 50% vs. 8/22, 36.35%; p < 0.042). Five-year survival rate was 94.5% (49/52 patients). Kidney Graft exit update is 47/52 (90.2%), and there were no significant differences between graft rejection and UTI (p = 0.2518). Isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli (31.5%), Candida albicans (21.0%) and Enterococcus spp. (10.5%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Morganella morganii, Enterobacter cloacae and Micrococcus spp. Secondary infections were produced by (7/19, 36.8%). Enterococcus spp. (57%), E. coli (28%) and Micrococcus spp. (14.2%). Antibiotic resistance was 22% for ciprofloxacin and 33% for ampicillin. Therapeutic alternatives were aztreonam, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, netilmicin and fosfomycin. Surveillance of UTI for the first 3 months is a good option for improving quality of life of kidney transplantation patients and the exit of graft function especially for female patients and those receiving deceased grafts. Antibiograms provided a good therapeutic alternative to patients who presented with UTIs after receiving a kidney allograft.BMC Infectious Diseases 01/2010; 10:245. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infection are common complications after kidney transplantation. In this population, if urinary tract infection occurred in the first six months post procedure, it carries a grave impact on both graft and patient survival. Renal transplant recipients with urinary tract infection are often clinically asymptomatic as a consequence of immunosuppression. Urinary tract infection, however, may progress to acute pyelonephritis, bacteremia and the full blown picture of urosepsis. PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched. The purpose of this review is to discuss the screening and treatment of urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria in renal transplant recipients and to evaluate the guidelines on the basis of a review of published evidence.Journal of global infectious diseases 10/2011; 3(4):383-9.
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ABSTRACT: Renal transplantation has long been recognised as the gold standard treatment for children with end-stage renal failure. There has been an improvement over the years in patient and renal allograft survival because of improved immunosuppression, surgical techniques and living kidney donation. Despite reduced acute allograft rejection rates, non-viral infections continue to be a serious complication for paediatric renal transplant recipients (RTR). The risk of infections in RTR is determined by the pre-transplantation immunisation status, post-transplant exposure to potential pathogens and the amount of immunosuppression. The greatest risk of life-threatening and Cytomegalovirus infections is during the first 6 months post-transplant owing to a high immunosuppressive burden. The potential sources of bacterial infections are donor derived, transplant medium fluid, peritoneal and haemodialysis catheter and transplant ureteric stent. Urinary tract infections are frequent in patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction and can result in renal allograft damage. This review outlines the incidence, timing, risk factors, prevention and treatment of non-viral infections in paediatric RTR by critically reviewing current immunosuppressive regimens, their risk-benefit ratio in order to optimise renal allograft survival with reduced rates of rejection and infectious complications.Pediatric Nephrology 02/2012; 27(9):1465-76. · 2.94 Impact Factor