Appropriate intervention strategies for weight gain induced by olanzapine: a randomized controlled study.
ABSTRACT Weight gain induced by antipsychotics is the second most frequently given reason for noncompliance with pharmacologic therapy; excessive sedative effects rank first, with extrapyramidal side effects ranking third. Frequently, weight gain leads to inconsistent pharmacologic treatment; this exposes patients to the risk of recurrent symptoms. In fact, one of the key contributors to good clinical outcomes in schizophrenic patients is compliance with pharmacologic treatment. The goals of this study were to evaluate weight gain in a group of patients treated with olanzapine, diet modifications, and moderate physical activity and to compare the findings with those from a second group of patients who were given only olanzapine treatment. For 8 wk, investigators followed 2 groups of patients suffering from schizophrenia and hypomania in bipolar disorder, according to the nosographic criteria of The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). The first group (A) of 18 patients (9 female, 9 male) affected by manic episodes in bipolar disorder received olanzapine (10-20 mg/d), jogged lightly for 30 min 3 times a week, and complied with a diet that consisted of 500 kcal/d less than usual. The second group (B) of 10 patients (4 female, 6 male) with schizophrenia received only olanzapine (10-20 mg/d). All patients from both groups were weighed at the beginning of the observation period and weekly thereafter for 2 mo. After 2 mo of observation, group A showed a mean weight gain of 1.47 kg, whereas group B exhibited a mean weight gain of 3.5 kg; the difference between the 2 groups was almost 2 kg (P<.005). Group A showed a statistically significant reduction in weight gain compared with group B, clearly demonstrating the effectiveness of moderate physical activity and diet therapy in reducing weight gain in atypical antipsychotic treatment. Therefore, patient weight and body mass index must be monitored during the first weeks of antipsychotic treatment, with the goals of avoiding significant weight gain and treatment interruption.
SourceAvailable from: Marcellino Monda[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This review of our literature describes the effects of many neuroleptic drugs on the sympathetic and hyperthermic reactions due to orexin A, a neuropeptide affecting body temperature and food intake by an increase in sympathetic activity. Haloperidol reduces, while clozapine and olanzapine block the hyperthermia induced by orexin A. Risperidone enhances the elevation of body temperature due to orexin A. Quetiapine delays these hyperthermic effects. The implications on human therapeutic strategies are discussed, including the involvement of orexinergic pathway in the induction of obesity, induced by these neuroleptic substances. We summarize our published data in a unique report so to emphasize the influences of these neuroleptic drugs on the control of body temperature, exerted by orexinergic system. This large vision could be also useful to address therapeutic choices. Patients with serious mental illness are at higher risk of developing metabolic abnormalities (e.g., weight gain, increased blood pressure, and glucose or lipid levels) in comparison to general population. Since the risk increases following initiation of narcoleptic therapy, it must assess carefully risks and benefits when choosing a particular antipsychotic drug.
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ABSTRACT: To determine effects of physical activity on depressive symptoms (primary objective), symptoms of schizophrenia, anthropometric measures, aerobic capacity, and quality of life (secondary objectives) in people with mental illness and explore between-study heterogeneity. MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Embase, and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) were searched from earliest record to 2013. Randomized controlled trials of adults with a DSM-IV-TR, ICD-10, or clinician-confirmed diagnosis of a mental illness other than dysthymia or eating disorders were selected. Interventions included exercise programs, exercise counseling, lifestyle interventions, tai chi, or physical yoga. Study methodological quality and intervention compliance with American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines were also assessed. Two investigators extracted data. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Meta-regression was used to examine sources of between-study heterogeneity. Thirty-nine eligible trials were identified. The primary meta-analysis found a large effect of physical activity on depressive symptoms (n = 20; standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.80). The effect size in trial interventions that met ACSM guidelines for aerobic exercise did not differ significantly from those that did not meet these guidelines. The effect for trials with higher methodological quality was smaller than that observed for trials with lower methodological quality (SMD = 0.39 vs 1.35); however, the difference was not statistically significant. A large effect was found for schizophrenia symptoms (SMD = 1.0), a small effect was found for anthropometry (SMD = 0.24), and moderate effects were found for aerobic capacity (SMD = 0.63) and quality of life (SMD = 0.64). Physical activity reduced depressive symptoms in people with mental illness. Larger effects were seen in studies of poorer methodological quality. Physical activity reduced symptoms of schizophrenia and improved anthropometric measures, aerobic capacity, and quality of life among people with mental illness. PROSPERO registration #CRD42012002012.The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 09/2014; 75(9):964-974. DOI:10.4088/JCP.13r08765 · 5.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to estimate the effects of lifestyle interventions on bodyweight and other cardiometabolic risk factors in people with psychotic disorders. Additionally, the long-term effects on body weight and the effects on depressive symptoms were examined. We searched four databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared lifestyle interventions to control conditions in patients with psychotic disorders. Lifestyle interventions were aimed at weight loss or weight gain prevention, and the study outcomes included bodyweight or metabolic parameters. The search resulted in 25 RCTs -only 4 were considered high quality- showing an overall effect of lifestyle interventions on bodyweight (effect size (ES) = -0.63, p<0.0001). Lifestyle interventions were effective in both weight loss (ES = -0.52, p<0.0001) and weight-gain-prevention (ES = -0.84, p = 0.0002). There were significant long-term effects, two to six months post-intervention, for both weight-gain-prevention interventions (ES = -0.85, p = 0.0002) and weight loss studies (ES = -0.46, p = 0.02). Up to ten studies reported on cardiometabolic risk factors and showed that lifestyle interventions led to significant improvements in waist circumference, triglycerides, fasting glucose and insulin. No significant effects were found for blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Four studies reported on depressive symptoms and showed a significant effect (ES = -0.95, p = 0.05). Lifestyle interventions are effective in treating and preventing obesity, and in reducing cardiometabolic risk factors. However, the quality of the studies leaves much to be desired.PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e112276. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0112276 · 3.53 Impact Factor