Effects of xenon anesthesia on cerebral blood flow in humans - A positron emission tomograpby study
ABSTRACT Animal studies have demonstrated a strong neuroprotective property of xenon. Its usefulness in patients with cerebral pathology could be compromised by deleterious effects on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF).
15O-labeled water was used to determine rCBF in nine healthy male subjects at baseline and during 1 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of xenon (63%). Anesthesia was based solely on xenon. Absolute changes in rCBF were quantified using region-of-interest analysis and voxel-based analysis.
Mean arterial blood pressure and arterial partial pressure for carbon dioxide remained unchanged. The mean (+/-SD) xenon concentration during anesthesia was 65.2+/-2.3%. Xenon anesthesia decreased absolute rCBF by 34.7+/-9.8% in the cerebellum (P<0.001), by 22.8+/-10.4% in the thalamus (P=0.001), and by 16.2+/-6.2% in the parietal cortex (P<0.001). On average, xenon anesthesia decreased absolute rCBF by 11.2+/-8.6% in the gray matter (P=0.008). A 22.1+/-13.6% increase in rCBF was detected in the white matter (P=0.001). Whole-brain voxel-based analysis revealed widespread cortical reductions and increases in rCBF in the precentral and postcentral gyri.
One MAC of xenon decreased rCBF in several areas studied. The greatest decreases were detected in the cerebellum, the thalamus and the cortical areas. Increases in rCBF were observed in the white matter and in the pre- and postcentral gyri. These results are in clear contradiction with ketamine, another N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist and neuroprotectant, which induces a general increase in cerebral blood flow at anesthetic concentrations.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This document reviews the literature on local brain manipulation of general anesthesia in animals, focusing on behavioral and electrographic effects related to hypnosis or loss of consciousness. Local inactivation or lesion of wake-active areas, such as locus coeruleus, dorsal raphe, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, perifornical area, tuberomammillary nucleus, ventral tegmental area and basal forebrain, enhanced general anesthesia. Anesthesia enhancement was shown as a delayed emergence (recovery of righting reflex) from anesthesia or a decrease in the minimal alveolar concentration that induced loss of righting. Local activation of various wake-active areas, including pontis oralis and centromedial thalamus, promoted behavioral or electrographic arousal during maintained anesthesia and facilitated emergence. Lesion of the sleep-active ventrolateral preoptic area resulted in increased wakefulness and decreased isoflurane sensitivity, but only for 6 days after lesion. Inactivation of any structure within limbic circuits involving the medial septum, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, ventral pallidum, and ventral tegmental area, amygdala, entorhinal and piriform cortex delayed emergence from anesthesia, and often reduced anesthetic-induced behavioral excitation. In summary, the concept that anesthesia works on the sleep-wake system has received strong support from studies that inactivated/lesioned or activated wake-active areas, and weak support from studies that lesioned sleep-active areas. In addition to the conventional wake-sleep areas, limbic structures such as the medial septum, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex are also involved in the behavioral response to general anesthesia. We suggest that hypnosis during general anesthesia may result from disrupting the wake-active neuronal activities in multiple areas and suppressing an atropine-resistant cortical activation associated with movements.Progress in Neurobiology 11/2014; 122. DOI:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2014.08.001 · 10.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Autoregulation of cerebral perfusion is impaired in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. We investigated whether cerebrovascular pressure reactivity (PRx), an element of cerebral autoregulation that is calculated as a moving correlation coefficient between averages of intracranial and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) with values between -1 and +1, is impaired during and after a hypoxic-ischemic insult (HI) in newborn pigs. Associations between end-tidal CO2, seizures, neuropathology, and PRx were investigated. The effect of hypothermia (HT) and Xenon (Xe) on PRx was studied. Pigs were randomized to Sham, and after HI to normothermia (NT), HT, Xe or xenon hypothermia (XeHT). We defined PRx >0.2 as peak and negative PRx as preserved. Neuropathology scores after 72 hours of survival was grouped as 'severe' or 'mild.' Secondary PRx peak during recovery, predictive of severe neuropathology and associated with insult severity (P=0.05), was delayed in HT (11.5 hours) than in NT (6.5 hours) groups. Seizures were associated with impaired PRx in NT pigs (P=0.0002), but not in the HT/XeHT pigs. PRx was preserved during normocapnia and impaired during hypocapnia. Xenon abolished the secondary PRx peak, increased (mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) MABP (6.5 (3.8, 9.4) mm Hg) and cerebral perfusion pressure (5.9 (2.9, 8.9) mm Hg) and preserved the PRx (regression coefficient, -0.098 (95% CI (-0.18, -0.01)), independent of the insult severity.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 31 July 2013; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2013.123.Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 07/2013; 33(11). DOI:10.1038/jcbfm.2013.123 · 5.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mechanisms of propofol-induced loss of consciousness remain poorly understood. Recent fMRI studies have shown decreases in functional connectivity during unconsciousness induced by this anesthetic agent. Functional connectivity does not provide information of directional changes in the dynamics observed during unconsciousness. The aim of the present study was to investigate, in healthy humans during an auditory task, the changes in effective connectivity resulting from propofol induced loss of consciousness. We used Dynamic Causal Modeling for fMRI (fMRI-DCM) to assess how causal connectivity is influenced by the anesthetic agent in the auditory system. Our results suggest that the dynamic observed in the auditory system during unconsciousness induced by propofol, can result in a mixture of two effects: a local inhibitory connectivity increase and a decrease in the effective connectivity in sensory cortices.PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e71370. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0071370 · 3.53 Impact Factor