Animal studies have demonstrated a strong neuroprotective property of xenon. Its usefulness in patients with cerebral pathology could be compromised by deleterious effects on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF).
15O-labeled water was used to determine rCBF in nine healthy male subjects at baseline and during 1 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of xenon (63%). Anesthesia was based solely on xenon. Absolute changes in rCBF were quantified using region-of-interest analysis and voxel-based analysis.
Mean arterial blood pressure and arterial partial pressure for carbon dioxide remained unchanged. The mean (+/-SD) xenon concentration during anesthesia was 65.2+/-2.3%. Xenon anesthesia decreased absolute rCBF by 34.7+/-9.8% in the cerebellum (P<0.001), by 22.8+/-10.4% in the thalamus (P=0.001), and by 16.2+/-6.2% in the parietal cortex (P<0.001). On average, xenon anesthesia decreased absolute rCBF by 11.2+/-8.6% in the gray matter (P=0.008). A 22.1+/-13.6% increase in rCBF was detected in the white matter (P=0.001). Whole-brain voxel-based analysis revealed widespread cortical reductions and increases in rCBF in the precentral and postcentral gyri.
One MAC of xenon decreased rCBF in several areas studied. The greatest decreases were detected in the cerebellum, the thalamus and the cortical areas. Increases in rCBF were observed in the white matter and in the pre- and postcentral gyri. These results are in clear contradiction with ketamine, another N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist and neuroprotectant, which induces a general increase in cerebral blood flow at anesthetic concentrations.
"A recent study by Laitio et. al.  showed that administration of xenon (63%) in humans decreased rCBF in the cerebellum, thalamus, and cortical areas, while increasing rCBF in white matter and in parts of the precentral and postcentral gyri. Based on work by Rex et. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In hyperpolarized xenon magnetic resonance imaging (HP (129)Xe MRI), the inhaled spin-1/2 isotope of xenon gas is used to generate the MR signal. Because hyperpolarized xenon is an MR signal source with properties very different from those generated from water-protons, HP (129)Xe MRI may yield structural and functional information not detectable by conventional proton-based MRI methods. Here we demonstrate the differential distribution of HP (129)Xe in the cerebral cortex of the rat following a pain stimulus evoked in the animal's forepaw. Areas of higher HP (129)Xe signal corresponded to those areas previously demonstrated by conventional functional MRI (fMRI) methods as being activated by a forepaw pain stimulus. The percent increase in HP (129)Xe signal over baseline was 13-28%, and was detectable with a single set of pre and post stimulus images. Recent innovations in the production of highly polarized (129)Xe should make feasible the emergence of HP (129)Xe MRI as a viable adjunct method to conventional MRI for the study of brain function and disease.
PLoS ONE 07/2011; 6(7):e21607. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0021607 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"In rat brain synaptic plasma membranes, xenon inhibits plasma membrane calcium ATPase pump activity, resulting in an increase in neuronal Ca2+ concentration and an altered excitability in these cells . The decrease in regional CBF after xenon treatment  may help reduce intracranial pressure, and the regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Medical gases are pharmaceutical molecules which offer solutions to a wide array of medical needs. This can range from use in burn and stroke victims to hypoxia therapy in children. More specifically however, gases such as oxygen, helium, xenon, and hydrogen have recently come under increased exploration for their potential theraputic use with various brain disease states including hypoxia-ischemia, cerebral hemorrhages, and traumatic brain injuries. As a result, this article will review the various advances in medical gas research and discuss the potential therapeutic applications and mechanisms with regards to the field of neurobiology.
"However, most drugs used for anaesthesia have effects on blood brain pressure, which is already high when a brain tumor grows, or are known to be radioprotective for the normal brain parenchyma. Ketamine, which is commonly used for anaesthesia of rodents, induces a general increase in cerebral blood flow at anaesthetic concentrations . Some authors reported that pentobarbital protects against radiation-induced damage to normal rat brain. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiotherapy has been shown to be an effective for the treatment human glioma and consists of 30 fractions of 2 Gy each for 6-7 weeks in the tumor volume with margins. However. in preclinical studies, many different radiation schedules are used. The main purpose of this work was to review the relevant literature and to propose an external whole-brain irradiation (WBI) protocol for a rat 9L glioma model.
9L cells were implanted in the striatum of twenty 344-Fisher rats to induce a brain tumor. On day 8, animals were randomized in two groups: an untreated group and an irradiated group with three fractions of 6 Gy at day 8, 11 and 14. Survival and toxicity were assessed.
Irradiated rats had significantly a longer survival (p = 0.01). No deaths occurred due to the treatment. Toxicities of reduced weight and alopecia were increased during the radiation period but no serious morbidity or mortality was observed. Moreover, abnormalities disappeared the week following the end of the therapeutic schedule.
Delivering 18 Gy in 3 fractions of 6 Gy every 3 days, with mild anaesthesia, is safe, easy to reproduce and allows for standardisation in preclinical studies of different treatment regimens glioma rat model.
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 11/2010; 29(1):142. DOI:10.1186/1756-9966-29-142 · 4.43 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.