Soluble CD14 and CD83 from human neonatal antigen-presenting cells are inducible by commensal bacteria and suppress allergen-induced human neonatal Th2 differentiation.

Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Göteborg University, Guldhedsgatan 10, 413 46 Göteborg, Sweden.
Infection and Immunity (Impact Factor: 4.07). 09/2007; 75(8):4097-104. DOI:10.1128/IAI.01744-06
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT CD14 is expressed on the cell surface of various antigen-presenting cells, and CD83 is a maturation marker for dendritic cells (DC). CD14 and CD83 are also present as soluble proteins, and both have immunoregulatory functions. We examined whether neonatal cord blood monocytes or DC released soluble CD14 (sCD14) or sCD83 when exposed to the commensal intestinal bacteria Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Escherichia coli, and Bacteroides fragilis. We found that the gram-positive bacteria C. perfringens and S. aureus, but not gram-negative bacteria, induced the release of sCD14 from monocytes. DC, on the other hand, released sCD14 in response to both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, the expression of the virulence factor staphylococcal protein A seemed to be important for S. aureus-induced sCD14 production from both monocytes and DC. Soluble CD83 was released from DC, but not from monocytes, when exposed to both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Finally, to investigate whether sCD14 or sCD83 could modulate neonatal allergen-induced T-cell differentiation, DC were exposed to birch allergen alone or in the presence of sCD14 or sCD83 and then cocultured with autologous T cells. We demonstrate that sCD14 and sCD83 inhibited the birch allergen-induced Th2 differentiation by suppressing interleukin 13 production. Together, these results suggest that the commensal intestinal flora may be an important stimulus for the developing immune system by inducing the immunoregulatory proteins sCD14 and sCD83, which may be involved in preventing T-cell sensitization to allergens in infants.

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