The two-component regulatory system senX3-regX3 regulates phosphate-dependent gene expression in Mycobacterium smegmatis.
ABSTRACT Phosphate import is required for the growth of mycobacteria and is regulated by environmental inorganic phosphate (P(i)) concentrations, although the mechanism of this regulation has not been characterized. The expression of genes involved in P(i) acquisition is frequently regulated by two-component regulatory systems (2CRs) consisting of a sensor histidine kinase and a DNA-binding response regulator. In this work, we have identified the senX3-regX3 2CR as a P(i)-dependent regulator of genes involved in phosphate acquisition in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Characterization of senX3 mutants with different PhoA phenotypes suggests a dual role for SenX3 as a phosphatase or a phosphodonor for the response regulator RegX3, depending upon P(i) availability. Expression of PhoA activity required phosphorylation of RegX3, consistent with a role for phosphorylated RegX3 (RegX3 approximately P) as a transcriptional activator of phoA. Furthermore, purified RegX3 approximately P bound to promoter sequences from phoA, senX3, and the high-affinity phosphate transporter component pstS, demonstrating direct transcriptional control of all three genes. DNase I footprinting and primer extension analyses have further defined the DNA-binding region and transcriptional start site within the phoA promoter. A DNA motif consisting of an inverted repeat was identified in each of the promoters bound by RegX3 approximately P. Based upon our findings, we propose a model for P(i)-regulated gene expression mediated by SenX3-RegX3 in mycobacteria.
Article: Decoding human regulatory circuits.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Clusters of transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) which direct gene expression constitute cis-regulatory modules (CRMs). We present a novel algorithm, based on Gibbs sampling, which locates, de novo, the cis features of these CRMs, their component TFBSs, and the properties of their spatial distribution. The algorithm finds 69% of experimentally reported TFBSs and 85% of the CRMs in a reference data set of regions upstream of genes differentially expressed in skeletal muscle cells. A discriminant procedure based on the output of the model specifically discriminated regulatory sequences in muscle-specific genes in an independent test set. Application of the method to the analysis of 2710 10-kb fragments upstream of annotated human genes identified 17 novel candidate modules with a false discovery rate </=0.05, demonstrating the applicability of the method to genome-scale data.Genome Research 10/2004; 14(10A):1967-74. · 13.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: mariner family transposons are widespread among eukaryotic organisms. These transposons are apparently horizontally transmitted among diverse eukaryotes and can also transpose in vitro in the absence of added cofactors. Here we show that transposons derived from the mariner element Himar1 can efficiently transpose in bacteria in vivo. We have developed simple transposition systems by using minitransposons, made up of short inverted repeats flanking antibiotic resistance markers. These elements can efficiently transpose after expression of transposase from an appropriate bacterial promoter. We found that transposition of mariner-based elements in Escherichia coli produces diverse insertion mutations in either a targeted plasmid or a chromosomal gene. With Himar1-derived transposons we were able to isolate phage-resistant mutants of both E. coli and Mycobacterium smegmatis. mariner-based transposons will provide valuable tools for mutagenesis and genetic manipulation of bacteria that currently lack well developed genetic systems.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/1999; 96(4):1645-50. · 9.68 Impact Factor
Article: Conditionally replicating mycobacteriophages: a system for transposon delivery to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Transposon mutagenesis provides a direct selection for mutants and is an extremely powerful technique to analyze genetic functions in a variety of prokaryotes. Transposon mutagenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been limited in part because of the inefficiency of the delivery systems. This report describes the development of conditionally replicating shuttle phasmids from the mycobacteriophages D29 and TM4 that enable efficient delivery of transposons into both fast- and slow-growing mycobacteria. These shuttle phasmids consist of an Escherichia coli cosmid vector containing either a mini-Tn10(kan) or Tn5367 inserted into a nonessential region of the phage genome. Thermosensitive mutations were created in the mycobacteriophage genome that allow replication at 30 degrees C but not at 37 degrees C (TM4) or 38.5 degrees C (D29). Infection of mycobacteria at the nonpermissive temperature results in highly efficient transposon delivery to the entire population of mycobacterial cells. Transposition of mini-Tn10(kan) occurred in a site-specific fashion in M. smegmatis whereas Tn5367 transposed apparently randomly in M. phlei, Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), and M. tuberculosis. Sequence analysis of the M. tuberculosis and BCG chromosomal regions adjacent to Tn5367 insertions, in combination with M. tuberculosis genomic sequence and physical map data, indicates that the transpositions have occurred randomly in diverse genes in every quadrant of the genome. Using this system, it has been readily possible to generate libraries containing thousands of independent mutants of M. phlei, BCG, and M. tuberculosis.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/1997; 94(20):10961-6. · 9.68 Impact Factor