Chromium picolinate and conjugated linoleic acid do not synergistically influence diet- and exercise-induced changes in body composition and health indexes in overweight women

Department of Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry (Impact Factor: 3.79). 01/2008; 19(1):61-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2007.01.006
Source: PubMed


This study assessed the effects of combined chromium picolinate (CP) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on energy restriction and exercise-induced changes in body composition, glucose metabolism, lipid lipoprotein profile and blood pressure in overweight, premenopausal women. For 12 weeks, 35 women [age 36+/-1 years (mean+/-S.E.M.); BMI 28.0+/-0.5 kg/m2] were counseled to consume a 2092 kJ/day (500 kcal/day) energy deficit diet and performed 30 min of moderate-intensity walking or jogging 5 days/week. The women were randomly assigned to ingest either CP-CLA [400 mug chromium (Cr), 1.8 g CLA in 2.4 g tonalin oil, n=19] or placebo (<0.1 microg Cr, 2.4 g canola oil, n=16). Compared to baseline, urinary Cr excretion increased 22-fold, plasma CLA isomer 18:2 (c9,t11) content increased 79% and plasma CLA isomer 18:2 (t10,c12) became detectable in CP-CLA and were unchanged in Placebo. Over time, body weight decreased 3.5+/-0.5% (CP-CLA -2.6+/-0.5; placebo -2.5+/-0.5 kg) and fat mass decreased 8.9+/-1.3% (CP-CLA -2.7+/-0.5, placebo -2.4+/-0.5 kg), with no differences in responses between groups. Fasting blood hemoglobin A1c, plasma glucose and insulin, a homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance, serum total cholesterol (CHOL), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerol (TG), CHOL/HDL ratio, TG/HDL ratio and sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressures were not changed over time or influenced by CP-CLA. The use of a combined CP and CLA supplement for 3 months does not affect diet- and exercise-induced changes in weight and body composition or improve indexes of metabolic and cardiovascular health in young overweight women.

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Available from: Bruce A Watkins, Mar 15, 2014
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    • "This study concluded that canola oil can increase cholecystokinin levels, which may, in turn, mediate the satiating effects in ileum, but not in peptide YY. Diaz et al.77 assessed the effects of the dietary supplements chromium picolinate and conjugated linoleic acid, with canola oil provided as the placebo, on energy restriction and exercise-induced changes in body weight, body composition, and body mass index in overweight premenopausal women over a period of 12 weeks. Despite the initial hypothesis that women who consumed the dietary supplements would attain lower fat deposition, higher lean mass, and greater positive changes in indexes of metabolism compared to women who consumed a placebo (canola oil), the results of this study supported the assertion that the combination of conjugated linoleic acid failed to influence losses of body weight and fat deposition compared to the placebo canola oil treatment. "
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    ABSTRACT: Canola oil-based diets have been shown to reduce plasma cholesterol levels in comparison with diets containing higher levels of saturated fatty acids. Consumption of canola oil also influences biological functions that affect various other biomarkers of disease risk. Previous reviews have focused on the health effects of individual components of canola oil. Here, the objective is to address the health effects of intact canola oil, as this has immediate practical implications for consumers, nutritionists, and others deciding which oil to consume or recommend. A literature search was conducted to examine the effects of canola oil consumption on coronary heart disease, insulin sensitivity, lipid peroxidation, inflammation, energy metabolism, and cancer cell growth. Data reveal substantial reductions in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, as well as other positive actions, including increased tocopherol levels and improved insulin sensitivity, compared with consumption of other dietary fat sources. In summary, growing scientific evidence supports the use of canola oil, beyond its beneficial actions on circulating lipid levels, as a health-promoting component of the diet.
    Nutrition Reviews 06/2013; 71(6):370-85. DOI:10.1111/nure.12033 · 6.08 Impact Factor
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    • "Another possible action of CLA in alleviating hyperinsulinemia (in Zucker diabetic fatty rats) is via the sensitisation of the adiponectin, a recently discovered hormone secreted by adipocytes that has been reported to enhance insulin sensitivity [100]. Furthermore, determining the ability of CLA isomers to influence glucose and lipid metabolism as well as markers of insulin sensitivity is imperative to understanding the role of CLA, and thus to aid in the management of type II diabetes and other related conditions of insulin resistance [101,102]. "
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    ABSTRACT: This review evaluates the health benefits of the functional food, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) - a heterogeneous group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid predominantly found in milk, milk products, meat and meat products of ruminants. During the past couple of decades, hundreds of reports - principally based on in vitro, microbial, animal, and of late clinical trials on humans - have been accumulating with varying biological activities of CLA isomers. These studies highlight that CLA, apart form the classical nuclear transcription factors-mediated mechanism of action, appear to exhibit a number of inter-dependent molecular signalling pathways accounting for their reported health benefits. Such benefits relate to anti-obesitic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-atherogenic, anti-diabetagenic, immunomodulatory, apoptotic and osteosynthetic effects. On the other hand, negative effects of CLA have been reported such as fatty liver and spleen, induction of colon carcinogenesis and hyperproinsulinaemia. As far as human consumption is concerned, a definite conclusion for CLA safety has not been reached yet. Parameters such as administration of the type of CLA isomer and/or their combination with other polyunsaturated fatty acids, mode of administration (eg., as free fatty acid or its triglyceride form, liquid or solid), daily dose and duration of consumption, gender, age, or ethnic and geographical backgrounds remain to be determined. Yet, it appears from trials so far conducted that CLA are functional food having prevailing beneficial health effects for humans.
    Nutrition & Metabolism 09/2009; 6(1):36. DOI:10.1186/1743-7075-6-36 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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