The IGF-I splice variant MGF increases progenitor cells in ALS, dystrophic, and normal muscle.
ABSTRACT The effects of muscle splice variants of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) on proliferation and differentiation were studied in human primary muscle cell cultures from healthy subjects as well as from muscular dystrophy and ALS patients. Although the initial numbers of mononucleated progenitor cells expressing desmin were lower in diseased muscle, the E domain peptide of IGF-IEc (MGF) significantly increased the numbers of progenitor cells in healthy and diseased muscle. IGF-I significantly enhances myogenic differentiation whereas MGF E peptide blocks this pathway, resulting in an increased progenitor (stem) cell pool and thus potentially facilitating repair and maintenance of this postmitotic tissue.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Satellite cells are considered to be adult skeletal muscle stem cells. Their ability to regenerate large muscle defects is highly dependent on their specific niche. When these cells are cultured in vitro, the loss of this niche leads to a loss of proliferative capacity and defective regeneration when implanted back into a muscle defect. The most important aspects of the niche will be discussed--in particular, the basement membrane, the niche's mechanical properties, its supporting cells, and the influence these features have on satellite cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation. Understanding more about the control of these satellite cell activities by the niche will facilitate their recruitment and effective deployment for regenerative medicine.Tissue Engineering Part B Reviews 10/2008; 14(4):419-31. · 4.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cellular commitment during vertebrate embryogenesis is controlled by an interplay of intrinsic regulators and morphogenetic signals. These mechanisms recruit a subset of cells in the developing organism to become the ancestors of skeletal muscle. Signals that control progression through the myogenic lineage converge on a battery of hierarchically organized transcription factors which modulate the cells to either remain in a primitive state or allow their commitment and differentiation into skeletal muscle fibers. A small population of cells will retain a largely unspecified state throughout development. Such stem cells, in conjunction with more committed myogenic progenitors, form a heterogeneous population that colonizes adult skeletal muscle as satellite cells. The satellite cell pool is responsible for the remarkable regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle. Similar to their counterparts during embryonic development, satellite cells are capable of self-renewal and can give rise to myogenic progeny. Impaired satellite cell homeostasis has been associated with numerous muscular disorders. Due to intense research efforts in the past two decades, the complex biology of muscle stem cells has now revealed some of its secrets and new avenues for the development of therapeutic molecules have emerged. In the present review we focus on the extrinsic mechanisms that control self-renewal, specification and differentiation of satellite cells and their significance for the development of biologic drugs.Stem Cell Research & Therapy 01/2010; 1(3):27. · 3.21 Impact Factor