Effects of Six Weeks of β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate (HMB) and HMB/Creatine Supplementation on Strength, Power, and Anthropometry of Highly Trained Athletes

Institute of Sport and Exercise Science, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia
The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research (Impact Factor: 2.08). 06/2007; 21(2):419-23. DOI: 10.1519/R-15974.1
Source: PubMed


This study investigated the effects of 6 weeks of dietary supplementation of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and HMB combined with creatine monohydrate (HMBCr) on the muscular strength and endurance, leg power, and anthropometry of elite male rugby league players. The subjects were divided into a control group (n = 8), a HMB group (n = 11; 3 g.d(-1)) or a HMBCr group (n = 11; 12 g.d(-1) with 3 g HMB, 3 g Cr, 6 g carbohydrates). Three repetition maximum lifts on bench press, deadlifts, prone row, and shoulder press, maximum chin-up repetitions, 10-second maximal cycle test, body mass, girths, and sum of skinfolds were assessed pre- and postsupplementation. Statistical analysis revealed no effect of HMB or HMBCr on any parameter compared with presupplementation measures or the control group. HMB and HMBCr were concluded to have no ergogenic effect on muscular strength and endurance, leg power, or anthropometry when taken orally by highly trained male athletes over 6 weeks.

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Available from: Donna O'Connor, Feb 18, 2015
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    • "In addition, studies have provided a variety HMB doses ranging from 1.5 to 6 g daily [7,12]. Moreover, some studies have supplemented HMB along with creatine monohydrate [10,43] or arginine and glutamine [13]. Further, some researchers have controlled for diet [13,42], while the majority have not [10,12,19,22,34]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the use of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) as a nutritional supplement. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1. HMB can be used to enhance recovery by attenuating exercise induced skeletal muscle damage in trained and untrained populations. 2. If consuming HMB, an athlete will benefit from consuming the supplement in close proximity to their workout. 3. HMB appears to be most effective when consumed for 2 weeks prior to an exercise bout. 4. Thirty-eight mg.kg.BM-1 daily of HMB has been demonstrated to enhance skeletal muscle hypertrophy, strength, and power in untrained and trained populations when the appropriate exercise prescription is utilized. 5. Currently, two forms of HMB have been used: Calcium HMB (HMB-Ca) and a free acid form of HMB (HMB-FA). HMB-FA may increase plasma absorption and retention of HMB to a greater extent than HMB-CA. However, research with HMB-FA is in its infancy, and there is not enough research to support whether one form is superior. 6. HMB has been demonstrated to increase LBM and functionality in elderly, sedentary populations. 7. HMB ingestion in conjunction with a structured exercise program may result in greater declines in fat mass (FM). 8. HMB's mechanisms of action include an inhibition and increase of proteolysis and protein synthesis, respectively. 9. Chronic consumption of HMB is safe in both young and old populations.
    Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 02/2013; 10(1):6. DOI:10.1186/1550-2783-10-6 · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    • "Subjects who took the combination showed a significant improvement in muscle strength. However, in another study in athletes, 18 who took this combination for 1.5 mo noted no improvement in strength [64]. The HMB has been tested in addition to substances other than creatine. "
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    ABSTRACT: Ergogenic dietary aids might be useful adjunctive therapy to enhance the effects of exercise in the elderly, who lose physical function with age. Many such aids have been tested in athletes and untrained younger persons in laboratory and athletic performance settings, with positive results, although not all studies have demonstrated benefit. Some substances have been tested in the elderly, including creatine, caffeine, β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, ubiquinone, and carnitine. The published medical evidence for the use of these substances is considered in this review article. All studies have involved a few subjects for a short period. Studies of creatine alone or together with exercise in old persons have yielded mixed results. These studies have confirmed that creatine in older individuals, as in younger individuals, can increase the short-term capacity to perform quick, repeated episodes of intense activity. An investigation of caffeine has suggested that in older as in younger individuals, caffeine increases endurance but may not improve other parameters of exercise capacity. Evidence has implied β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate can increase the ability to perform certain short-term activities requiring strength, but not others. Carnitine has been reported to decrease fatigue and increase endurance in older persons. An investigation of ubiquinone has shown no benefit. Further testing has involved the combinations of agents, such as creatine and caffeine, and combinations of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, showing some small improvements in physical function. Future research with these and potentially other combinations over a longer duration will be needed to establish the safety and efficacy of ergogenic dietary aids.
    Nutrition 12/2011; 28(3):225-9. DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2011.10.009 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    • "j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w. e l s e v i e r. c o m / l o c a t e / b b a m c r [28] [29] [30] [31]. The efficacy of HMB has also been demonstrated in pathological conditions, where it has been reported to reduce muscle wasting associated with muscular dystrophies, trauma and cancer cachexia [30] [32] [33]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), a leucine catabolite, has been shown to prevent exercise-induced protein degradation and muscle damage. We hypothesized that HMB would directly regulate muscle-cell proliferation and differentiation and would attenuate apoptosis, the latter presumably underlying satellite-cell depletion during muscle degradation or atrophy. Adding various concentrations of HMB to serum-starved myoblasts induced cell proliferation and MyoD expression as well as the phosphorylation of MAPK/ERK. HMB induced differentiation-specific markers, increased IGF-I mRNA levels and accelerated cell fusion. Its inhibition of serum-starvation- or staurosporine-induced apoptosis was reflected by less apoptotic cells, reduced BAX expression and increased levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-X. Annexin V staining and flow cytometry analysis showed reduced staurosporine-induced apoptosis in human myoblasts in response to HMB. HMB enhanced the association of the p85 subunit of PI3K with tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. HMB elevated Akt phosphorylation on Thr308 and Ser473 and this was inhibited by Wortmannin, suggesting that HMB acts via Class I PI3K. Blocking of the PI3K/Akt pathway with specific inhibitors revealed its requirement in mediating the promotive effects of HMB on muscle cell differentiation and fusion. These direct effects of HMB on myoblast differentiation and survival resembling those of IGF-I, at least in culture, suggest its positive influence in preventing muscle wasting.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 02/2009; 1793(5):755-63. DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2008.12.017 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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