Prevalence and etiology of low bone mineral density in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus
ABSTRACT Studies of adults with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have frequently demonstrated the presence of decreased bone mineral density (BMD). However, there have been few investigations in pediatric patients to date. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of low BMD in patients with juvenile SLE and to identify associated risk factors.
We studied 64 consecutive patients with juvenile SLE in whom routine dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning was performed. Lumbar spine osteopenia was defined as a BMD Z score of < -1 and > or = -2.5, and osteoporosis as a BMD Z score of < -2.5. Decreased hip BMD was defined as a value of < 80%. Data on disease activity, quality of life, disease-related damage, sex, ethnicity, body mass index, age at diagnosis, age at DXA, medication use and duration, clinical features, and puberty status were collected at the time of DXA.
Lumbar spine osteopenia was seen in 24 patients (37.5%) and osteoporosis in 13 (20.3%). Decreased hip BMD was present in 12 patients (18.8%). By univariate analysis, osteopenia was significantly correlated with age, disease duration, duration of corticosteroid use, cumulative corticosteroid dose, azathioprine use, cyclophosphamide use, lupus nephritis, and damage. Two additional variables, mycophenolate mofetil use and class III-IV nephritis, were associated with osteoporosis. Abnormal hip BMD was associated with disease duration, duration of corticosteroid use, and cumulative corticosteroid dose. By multivariate analysis, only disease duration remained in the model for osteoporosis and abnormal hip BMD, while cumulative corticosteroid dose was the variable associated with osteopenia.
These results indicate that osteopenia and osteoporosis are common in juvenile SLE and are associated more closely with increased disease duration than with cumulative corticosteroid dose.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Derek Stephens, Nov 16, 2014
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Physical appearance is very important to adolescents and weight gain secondary to corticosteroid (CS) treatment may have a direct impact on adolescent development. Understanding weight gain in adolescents with SLE who are being treated with CS will help clinicians develop strategies for prevention of nonadherence, obesity and eating disorders in this population.Methods:Patients aged 11-18 years old with newly diagnosed SLE between January,1995 and December, 2006 were identified through the Rheumatology database at the Sickkids hospital, Canada. All charts were reviewed. Patients were categorized based on final BMI status as normal, overweight and obese. Risk factors for being obese were examined by logistic regression model analysis.Results:Of 236 patients, 78% fulfilled the criteria. 85% were female with mean age at onset of diagnosis was 14 ± 1.7 years. Mean duration of CS treatment was 50 ± 31 months and mean cumulative CS dosage was 34.11 ± 32.7 g of prednisone. At baseline, 10% had BMI >25 kg/m(2) while at the end of the study, 20% were overweight and 10.4% were obese. In addition, 61% gained <10 kg while 15% gained ≥20 kg. Initial BMI was a significant predictors for final BMI (OR = 27.59, 95%CI = 6.04-126.09, p < .001) while male (OR = 8.50, 95%CI = 2.95-24.5, p < 0.000) and cumulative CS dosage (OR = 1.53, 95%CI = 1.05-2.23, p < .05) were the significant predictors for weight gain >10 kg. Duration of CS treatment did not correlate with obesity.Conclusion:Although a significant number of patients became overweight or obese after being treated with CS, most gained <10 kg. Obesity secondary to CS treatment in SLE patients was significantly correlated with baseline BMI, gender and cumulative CS dosage.Lupus 12/2012; 22(2). DOI:10.1177/0961203312469260 · 2.48 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Children with chronic illnesses such as Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis and Crohn's disease, particularly when taking glucocorticoids, are at significant risk for bone fragility. Furthermore, when childhood illness interferes with achieving normal peak bone mass, life-long fracture risk is increased. Osteopenia and osteoporosis, which is increasingly recognized in pediatric chronic disease, likely results from numerous disease- and treatment-related factors, including glucocorticoid exposure. Diagnosing osteoporosis in childhood is complicated by the limitations of current noninvasive techniques such as DXA, which despite its limitations remains the gold standard. The risk:benefit ratio of treatment is confounded by the potential for spontaneous restitution of bone mass deficits and reshaping of previously fractured vertebral bodies. Bisphosphonates have been used to treat secondary osteoporosis in children, but limited experience and potential long-term toxicity warrant caution in routine use. This article reviews the factors that influence loss of normal bone strength and evidence for effective treatments, in particular in patients with gastrointestinal and rheumatologic disorders who are receiving chronic glucocorticoid therapy.Current Osteoporosis Reports 07/2014; 12(3). DOI:10.1007/s11914-014-0228-x
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We evaluated the concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in children and adolescents with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) and associated them with disease duration and activity, use of medication (chloroquine and glucocorticoids), vitamin D intake, calcium and alkaline phosphatase levels, and bone mineral density. Thirty patients with JSLE were evaluated and compared to 30 healthy individuals, who were age and gender matched. Assessment was performed of clinical status, disease activity, anthropometry, laboratory markers, and bone mineral density. The 30 patients included 25 (83.3%) females and 16 (53.3%) Caucasians, with a mean age of 13.7 years. The mean age at diagnosis was 10.5 years and mean disease duration was 3.4 years. Mean levels of calcium, albumin, and alkaline phosphatase were significantly lower in patients with JSLE compared with controls (P<0.001, P=0.006, and P<0.001, respectively). Twenty-nine patients (97%) and 23 controls (77%) had 25(OH)D concentrations lower than 32 ng/mL, with significant differences between them (P<0.001). Fifteen patients (50%) had vitamin D levels <20 ng/mL and 14 had vitamin D levels between 20 and 32 ng/mL. However, these values were not associated with greater disease activity, higher levels of parathormone, medication intake, or bone mineral density. Vitamin D concentrations were similar with regard to ethnic group, body mass index, height for age, and pubertal stage. Significantly more frequently than in controls, we observed insufficient serum concentrations of 25(OH)D in patients with JSLE; however, we did not observe any association with disease activity, higher levels of parathormone, lower levels of alkaline phosphatase, use of medications, or bone mineral density alterations.Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.] 07/2014; DOI:10.1590/1414-431X20143948 · 1.08 Impact Factor