Article

Early adolescent exposure to alcohol advertising and its relationship to underage drinking.

RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California 90407-2138, USA.
Journal of Adolescent Health (Impact Factor: 2.97). 07/2007; 40(6):527-34. DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.01.002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To determine whether early adolescents who are exposed to alcohol marketing are subsequently more likely to drink. Recent studies suggest that exposure to alcohol ads has a limited influence on drinking in mid-adolescence. Early adolescents may be more vulnerable to alcohol advertising effects.
Two in-school surveys of 1786 South Dakota youth measured exposure to television beer advertisements, alcohol ads in magazines, in-store beer displays and beer concessions, radio-listening time, and ownership of beer promotional items during 6th grade, and drinking intentions and behavior at 7th grade. Multivariate regression equations predicted the two drinking outcomes using the advertising exposure variables and controlling for psychosocial factors and prior drinking.
After adjusting for covariates, the joint effect of exposure to advertising from all six sources at grade 6 was strongly predictive of grade 7 drinking and grade 7 intentions to drink. Youth in the 75th percentile of alcohol marketing exposure had a predicted probability of drinking that was 50% greater than that of youth in the 25th percentile.
Although causal effects are uncertain, policy makers should consider limiting a variety of marketing practices that could contribute to drinking in early adolescence.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
229 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Substance use is generally considered as one of the most important types of risk behaviour among adolescents. In order to understand substance use patterns in the adolescent population and to be able to take timely, adequate and targeted measures to prevent substance use related harm, it is essential to closely monitor factors like the prevalence of use, age of first use, intensity of use, trends, risk factors and co-morbid problems. The aim of this thesis is to provide this information for the use of alcohol and cannabis among Dutch adolescents. To this end, two high quality, nationally representative epidemiological studies, i.e. the Dutch National School Survey on Substance Use (DNSSU) (Monshouwer et al., 2004) and the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (HBSC) (Dorsselaer et al., 2007) were analysed. The first part of this thesis describes the prevalence and trends in the use of alcohol and cannabis. One of the main findings was that the increase in the life time prevalence rate of alcohol use over the period 1992-2003 was particularly strong among the youngest age group (12-14 years). The study on cannabis demonstrated that the changes in the prevalence rates across 1988- 2003 reflected underlying shift in the age of first cannabis use. For example, while prevalence rates showed an increase from 1988 to 1996, age of first cannabis use decreased. The second part of the thesis focussed on the progress to risky substance use patterns i.e. drunkenness and polydrug use. It was shown that that the time interval between the first drink and first drunkenness is small (1,6 years). Furthermore, polydrug use appeared to be highly prevalent, almost one quarter of the 12-16 year olds used two or more substances (including alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and hard drugs) in the month before the survey. The risk of becoming a polydrug user increased with age, was largest for ethnically Dutch students and those attending lower vocational education. The third part of this thesis showed that both alcohol and cannabis use were associated with a higher risk for externalising problems (delinquent and aggressive behaviour). For alcohol, but not for cannabis use it was shown that this relationship was especially strong among the younger age group (i.e. <14 years). Associations with internalising problems were generally weak and/or non-significant. The fourth part of this thesis investigated the role of school level variables It was shown that a relatively high percentage of ethnic minorities at the school was associated with a lower probability of episodic heavy drinking at the individual level, but only among the ethnic minority students. School alcohol policy appeared to be not significantly associated with episodic heavy drinking of individual students. The thesis concludes with several implications for alcohol and cannabis policy. One of the recommendations is to strengthen the Dutch alcohol policy on alcohol availability and advertisement. Furthermore, although the stabilizing trend in cannabis use seems rather favourable, young people still appear to underestimate the potential harmfulness of cannabis use, indicating the need for a further improvement of preventive interventions.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of alcohol, with heavy drinking risking impaired brain development and future alcohol dependence. Advertisements increase expectancies about alcohol, leading to a greater likelihood of drinking. A systematic review of 13 longitudinal studies of over 38,000 young people found convincing evidence of an impact of media exposure and alcohol advertising on subsequent alcohol use, including initiation of drinking and heavier drinking among existing drinkers. All European countries, with the exception of the UK, have a ban on one or more types of advertising. Since self-regulation is reported as failing to prevent marketing which has an impact on younger people, and since advertising commonly crosses country borders, there is an argument to approximate advertising rules across Europe banning alcohol advertising targeted at young people, a highly cost-effective measure to reduce harmful alcohol use, and one supported by European citizens and case law.
    Clinical medicine (London, England) 05/2009; 9(2):121-4. · 1.32 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: With the proliferation and acceptance of gambling in society, gambling advertisements have become increasingly prominent. Despite attempts to protect minors from harm by prohibiting them from engaging in most forms of gambling, there are few restrictions on the marketing of gambling products. Evidence of high rates of gambling and associated problems amongst youth indicates that the issue of youth gambling must be addressed to minimise harm. This paper aims to examine the current marketing techniques used to promote gambling and how they affect youth. The effect of multiple forms of advertisements will be discussed, including advertising placement in the media, point-of-sale displays, sports sponsorship, promotional products, celebrity endorsements, advertisements using Internet and wireless technology, and content which may appeal to or mislead children. Based on research in gambling and other public health domains, including tobacco, alcohol, and junk food advertising, recommendations are made for appropriate regulations for gambling advertisements to minimise the potential harms.
    Sally M Gainsbury.

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
41 Downloads
Available from
Jun 1, 2014