Article

Early Adolescent Exposure to Alcohol Advertising and Its Relationship to Underage Drinking

RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California, United States
Journal of Adolescent Health (Impact Factor: 2.75). 07/2007; 40(6):527-34. DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.01.002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To determine whether early adolescents who are exposed to alcohol marketing are subsequently more likely to drink. Recent studies suggest that exposure to alcohol ads has a limited influence on drinking in mid-adolescence. Early adolescents may be more vulnerable to alcohol advertising effects.
Two in-school surveys of 1786 South Dakota youth measured exposure to television beer advertisements, alcohol ads in magazines, in-store beer displays and beer concessions, radio-listening time, and ownership of beer promotional items during 6th grade, and drinking intentions and behavior at 7th grade. Multivariate regression equations predicted the two drinking outcomes using the advertising exposure variables and controlling for psychosocial factors and prior drinking.
After adjusting for covariates, the joint effect of exposure to advertising from all six sources at grade 6 was strongly predictive of grade 7 drinking and grade 7 intentions to drink. Youth in the 75th percentile of alcohol marketing exposure had a predicted probability of drinking that was 50% greater than that of youth in the 25th percentile.
Although causal effects are uncertain, policy makers should consider limiting a variety of marketing practices that could contribute to drinking in early adolescence.

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    • "Attention to and liking of alcohol advertising is strongly related to positive views on drinking, increased intentions to drink as an adult and increased drinking behaviour among youth (Agostinelli &Grube, 2002). Calfee &Scheraga, 1994; Stacy et al., 2004; Chen et al, 2005; Ellickson et al, 2005, Collins et al, 2007; Fisher et al., 2007 also found out that there is a close link between alcohol advertising coverage and drinking on adolescence that is, the effects of media on the behaviour and lifestyles of adolescence. Ellickson, Collins, Hambarsoomians, & McCaffrey, 2005; Hanewinkel & Sargent, 2007; Henriksen, Feighery, Schleicher, & Fortmann, 2008; McClure, Dal Cin, Gibson, & Sargent, 2006; Sargent, Wills, Stoolmiller, Gibson, & Gibbons, 2006 argue that alcohol advertising has the power to influence adolescents' drinking behaviours and that there is a positive effect between exposure to alcohol advertising and the initiation or reinforcement of alcohol consumption. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Alcohol consumption among adolescents in South Africa remains on the rise, especially among high school learners. The study explored the effects of alcohol advertisements and alcohol consumption amongst adolescents focusing on selected high Schools in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Results of this study revealed that most adolescence who end up consuming alcohol have been mostly exposed to alcohol advertisements that appeals to them the most and lures them to drinking. However there are other contributing factors such as, the influence of friends, peer pressure and family problems that cannot be brushed aside. It was also revealed in this study that alcohol advertising makes adolescence aware of different brands. This information ultimately makes students feel connected to alcohol advertising, thereby leading them to consuming alcohol. Keywords: alcohol, adolescent, advertising, high school
    11/2014; 5(23):1649. DOI:10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n23p1649
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    • "Agostinelli and Grube, (2002) identified a close positive relationship to views on drinking, increased intentions to drink as an adult and increased drinking behaviour among youth due to attention to and liking of alcohol advertising. Calfee &Scheraga, (1994); Stacy et al., (2004); Chen et al, (2005); Ellickson et al, (2005), Collins et al, (2007); Fisher et al., (2007) found the association between advertising exposure and drinking on adolescence i.e., the effects of media on the behaviour and lifestyles of adolescence. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract There is a high rate of alcohol consumption among adolescents in South Africa, especially high school leaners. The study explored the extent to which alcohol advertising impacts on adolescents focusing on selected high Schools in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Results of this study revealed that most adolescence who end up consuming alcohol have been mostly exposed to alcohol advertising, although there are other contributing factors such as, the influence of friends, peer pressure and family problems. It was also revealed in this study that alcohol advertising makes adolescence aware of different brands. This information ultimately makes students feel connected to alcohol advertising, thereby leading them to consuming alcohol. Keywords: alcohol, adolescent, abuse, high school
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    • "The individual studies varied widely in their focus and measurement approach and offered mixed results beyond the overall conclusions presented in the reviews. For example, some associations pertained only to certain age or gender subsets (Casswell et al., 2002; Connolly et al., 1994) or applied only to certain types of alcohol (Collins et al., 2007; Ellickson et al., 2005) or drinking outcomes (Henriksen et al., 2008; Robinson et al., 1998). In addition, the reviews combined studies of movie alcohol portrayals with studies of commercial marketing. "
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Exposure to alcohol marketing is prevalent and is associated with both initiation and progression of alcohol use in underage youth. The mechanism of influence is not well understood, however. This study tests a model that proposes alcohol-specific cognitions as mediators of the relation between alcohol marketing and problematic drinking among experimental underage drinkers. METHODS: This study describes a cross-sectional analysis of 1,734 U.S. 15- to 20-year-old underage drinkers, recruited for a national study of media and substance use. Subjects were queried about a number of alcohol marketing variables including TV time, Internet time, favorite alcohol ad, ownership of alcohol-branded merchandise (ABM), and exposure to alcohol brands in movies. The relation between these exposures and current (30-day) binge drinking was assessed, as were proposed mediators of this relation, including marketing-specific cognitions (drinker identity and favorite brand to drink), favorable alcohol expectancies, and alcohol norms. Paths were tested in a structural equation model that controlled for sociodemographics, personality, and peer drinking. RESULTS: Almost one-third of this sample of ever drinkers had engaged in 30-day binge drinking. Correlations between mediators were all statistically significant (range 0.16 to 0.47), and all were significantly associated with binge drinking. Statistically significant mediation was found for the association between ABM ownership and binge drinking through both drinker identity and having a favorite brand to drink, which also mediated the path between movie brand exposure and binge drinking. Peer drinking and sensation seeking were associated with binge drinking in paths through all mediators. CONCLUSIONS: Associations between alcohol marketing and binge drinking were mediated through marketing-specific cognitions that assess drinker identity and brand allegiance, cognitions that marketers aim to cultivate in the consumer.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 12/2012; 37. DOI:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2012.01932.x · 3.31 Impact Factor
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