[3rd Workshop on Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment of Invasive Meningococcal Disease in Würzburg 2006].
ABSTRACT On October 5th, 2006, the German Reference Centre for Meningococci (NRZM) held the 3rd Workshop on Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment of Invasive Meningococcal Disease, in collaboration with the German Society for Hygiene and Microbiology (DGHM). Given the recent recommendation of the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) for conjugate meningococcal C vaccination of all children in the second year of life, observations from meningococcal C conjugate vaccination campaigns in other European countries were presented and compared to the German situation. Moreover, the newly implemented cluster detection routines employed at the NRZM and their integration into the interactive geographical information system EpiScanGIS were shown. Based on recent experiences from regional outbreaks in Oberallgäu, Sangerhausen, and Greater Aachen, examples for public health intervention were given at the conference. In addition, current developments in the area of meningococcal research, as well as trends in antimicrobial susceptibility were covered. Finally, the latest evidence concerning the clinical management and chemoprophylaxis of this invasive bacterial disease was discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Alginate microbeads have been investigated clinically for a number of therapeutic interventions, including drug delivery for treatment of ischemic tissues, cell delivery for tissue regeneration, and islet encapsulation as a therapy for type I diabetes. The physical properties of the microbeads play an important role in regulating cell behavior, protein release, and biological response following implantation. In this research alginate microbeads were synthesized, varying composition (mannuronic acid to guluronic acid ratio), concentration of alginate and needle gauge size. Following synthesis, the size, volume fraction, and morphometry of the beads were quantified. In addition, these properties were monitored over time in vitro in the presence of varying calcium levels in the microenvironment. The initial volume available for solute diffusion increased with alginate concentration and mannuronic (M) acid content, and bead diameter decreased with M content but increased with needle diameter. Interestingly, microbeads eroded completely in saline in less than 3 weeks regardless of synthesis conditions much faster than what has been observed in vivo. However, microbead stability was increased by the addition of calcium in the culture medium. Beads synthesized with low alginate concentration and high G content exhibited a more rapid change in physical properties even in the presence of calcium. These data suggest that temporal variations in the physical characteristics of alginate microbeads can occur in vitro depending on synthesis conditions and microbead environment. The results presented here will assist in optimizing the design of the materials for clinical application in drug delivery and cell therapy.Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine 02/2012; 23(4):903-12. DOI:10.1007/s10856-012-4575-9 · 2.59 Impact Factor