Historically, ascertainment of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) by cancer registries in the U.K. has been shown to be incomplete in several studies. However, recent evidence suggesting that almost all clinically diagnosed NMSCs are verified histologically, coupled with the increasing availability of electronic histopathology data to cancer registries, raises the possibility that this situation may have improved.
To assess recent trends in incidence of the main types of NMSC and carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the skin in Scotland.
The study was restricted to selected health board areas in the East of Scotland for which pathology data have been used routinely to support cancer registration since the early 1990s. Incident cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin, CIS of the skin, and first ever basal cell carcinoma (BCC) were extracted from the Scottish Cancer Registry covering the period of diagnosis 1992-2003. Sex-specific, age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates were calculated for four consecutive 3-year periods of diagnosis. Estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) in incidence were calculated by Poisson regression modelling, with adjustment for age. The percentage distribution of SCC, BCC and CIS of the skin by anatomical site and sex was calculated for the period of diagnosis 1997-2003.
The crude incidence of SCC for the period 1995-97 was 34.7 per 100,000, comparable with the best existing Scottish estimate of 32.2 derived from a prospective survey in Glasgow during March 1995. Age-adjusted rates of SCC, first ever BCC, and CIS of the skin have all increased significantly in both sexes between 1992 and 2003 (all P < 0.001), with EAPCs ranging in magnitude from +1.4% (first ever BCC in males) to +5.1% (CIS in males). The majority of lesions arose on the head and neck area, with the exception of CIS, which in females was more commonly located on the limbs.
Ascertainment of NMSC has probably improved since the advent and use of electronic pathology data. Ongoing increases in age-adjusted incidence, combined with ageing of the population, will have major implications for the clinical workload associated with NMSC for the foreseeable future.
"Incidence rates of BCC vary significantly around the world, and even within countries. The incidence is substantially higher in Australia (884/100,000/year in 2002) , than in populations from Europe, the United Kingdom and North America where it ranges from 70 to 500/100,000/year depending on the population studied            . There is some evidence that incidence rates are continuing to rise in several populations [15– 18]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To calculate pooled risk estimates of the association between pigmentary characteristics and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin.
We searched three electronic databases and reviewed the reference lists of the retrieved articles until July 2012 to identify eligible epidemiologic studies. Eligible studies were those published in between 1965 and July 2012 that permitted quantitative assessment of the association between histologically-confirmed BCC and any of the following characteristics: hair colour, eye colour, skin colour, skin phototype, tanning and burning ability, and presence of freckling or melanocytic nevi. We included 29 studies from 2236 initially identified. We calculated summary odds ratios (ORs) using weighted averages of the log OR, using random effects models.
We found strongest associations with red hair (OR 2.02; 95% CI: 1.68, 2.44), fair skin colour (OR 2.11; 95% CI: 1.56, 2.86), and having skin that burns and never tans (OR 2.03; 95% CI: 1.73, 2.38). All other factors had weaker but positive associations with BCC, with the exception of freckling of the face in adulthood which showed no association.
Although most studies report risk estimates that are in the same direction, there is significant heterogeneity in the size of the estimates. The associations were quite modest and remarkably similar, with ORs between about 1.5 and 2.5 for the highest risk level for each factor. Given the public health impact of BCC, this meta-analysis will make a valuable contribution to our understanding of BCC.
"The keratinocytic skin cancers (BCC and SCC) and melanoma together comprise more than 98% of all skin tumors. The ESR of these three cutaneous malignancies are comparable with those reported previously from the same Dutch population and from other Northern European countries (Hannuksela- Svahn et al., 1999; Katalinic et al., 2003; Brewster et al., 2007), but are substantially lower than that in geographic regions such as Australia and parts of the United States (Stern, 1999). Between 1989 and 2005, the incidence rates of melanoma and SCC steadily increased and almost doubled. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiology of rare cutaneous malignancies in the general population is poorly documented. This descriptive study aimed to estimate the incidence and trends of all skin malignancies between 1989 and 2005. Data on skin tumors were extracted from the Netherlands Cancer registry (except for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) data-only available from Comprehensive Cancer Centre South) and categorized according to the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, third edition, codes. Age-standardized incidence rates (European standardized population rate, ESR) per 100,000 person-years were calculated per year and for the period between 2001 and 2005. Estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) were estimated by Poisson regression models. A total of 356,620 skin tumors were diagnosed between 1989 and 2005. Excluding BCC, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and melanoma, the remaining skin tumors constituted about 2% of all skin malignancies. The incidence of melanoma showed the steepest increase (EAPC, 4.0%), and ESR was close to that observed for SCC (EAPC, 2.3%) between 2001 and 2005 (17.1 versus 19.6). Hematolymphoid tumors (ESR=0.74) were mainly cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (60.8%). No significant increases in incidence were observed for lymphomas, and appendageal, fibromatous, and myomatous carcinomas during 1989-2005. In addition to keratinocytic cancers and melanoma, there is a wide variety of skin tumors that constitute <2% of all skin malignancies. The incidence of UV-related skin tumors increased significantly and more steeply than did those of other skin malignancies.
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