Article

Superiority of skinfold measurements and waist over waist-to-hip ratio for determination of body fat distribution in a population-based cohort of Caucasian Dutch adults.

Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, de Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV, room 0Z120, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
European Journal of Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 3.69). 06/2007; 156(6):655-61. DOI: 10.1530/EJE-06-0730
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To determine which anthropometric measurement is the most reliable alternative for fat distribution as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).
Population-based survey carried out in Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
A total of 376 individuals (200 women) with a mean age of 36.5 years and mean body mass index (BMI) of 24.0 (+/-3.1) kg/m2 underwent various anthropometric and DXA measurements of central (CFM) and peripheral fat mass (PFM). Furthermore, for the assessment of apple-shaped body composition, CFM-to-PFM ratio was calculated. Anthropometric measurements were waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), BMI, waist/length and the skinfold thickness of biceps, triceps, suprailiacal (SI), subscapular (SS) and upper leg. We determined whether equations of combined anthropometrics were even more reliable for the assessment of fat mass.
In both women and men, reliable alternatives for CFM are central skinfolds and waist (Pearson's correlation (r) >or= 0.8). Peripheral skinfolds are the best predictors of PFM (r >or= 0.8). In contrast, WHR correlated only marginally with any of the DXA measurements. Equations based on several anthropometric variables correlate with CFM even better (R2 >or= 0.8). CFM-to-PFM ratio has the highest correlation with the ratio (SS+SI)/BMI in women (r = 0.66) and waist/length in men (r = 0.71). Equations are reasonable alternatives of CFM-to-PFM ratio (R2 >or= 0.5).
Waist and skinfolds are reliable alternatives for the measurement of body fat mass in a cohort of Caucasian adults. WHR is not appropriate for the measurement of fat distribution.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Jaap Seidell, Dec 27, 2013
1 Follower
 · 
78 Views
  • Source
    • "Compared to the stylized MIRD5 phantoms, FAX06 and MAX06 are true to nature representations of humans, which make their CCs applicable to individual patients, at least to those with similar anatomical properties, if one neglects minor differences that still could exist with regard to organs without fixed positions, such as stomach, colon and small intestine. Among the anatomical properties of adult patients of a given age, the central fat mass (CFM), i.e. the subcutaneous and visceral fat mass of the trunk, can influence organ and tissue absorbed doses significantly, whereas the peripheral fat mass (PFM), i.e. the subcutaneous fat mass of the extremities, has negligible influence at least for the examinations mentioned in table 1. Ketel et al (2007) have reported that among the various anthropometric parameters they investigated, the waist circumference showed the best correlation with the CFM, which had been determined before independently by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body mass index and body weight also showed good correlation, but only with the total (CFM + PFM) fat mass. "
  • Source
    • "Compared to the stylized MIRD5 phantoms, FAX06 and MAX06 are true to nature representations of humans, which make their CCs applicable to individual patients, at least to those with similar anatomical properties, if one neglects minor differences that still could exist with regard to organs without fixed positions, such as stomach, colon and small intestine. Among the anatomical properties of adult patients of a given age, the central fat mass (CFM), i.e. the subcutaneous and visceral fat mass of the trunk, can influence organ and tissue absorbed doses significantly, whereas the peripheral fat mass (PFM), i.e. the subcutaneous fat mass of the extremities, has negligible influence at least for the examinations mentioned in table 1. Ketel et al (2007) have reported that among the various anthropometric parameters they investigated, the waist circumference showed the best correlation with the CFM, which had been determined before independently by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body mass index and body weight also showed good correlation, but only with the total (CFM + PFM) fat mass. "
  • Source
    • "Thus, truncal fat (%) was calculated by the equation: TF (%) = [R(subscapular and suprailiac skinfold thickness) (mm)]/[R(biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfold thickness) (mm)] Â 100. Truncal skinfolds and related-ratios were measured to assess central adiposity and body fat distribution [30] and associated with plasma and gene expression of pro-inflammatory markers [4]. BMI was calculated as the ratio between weight (kg) and the squared height (m 2 ). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this article is to assess the potential relationships between TNFα gene promoter methylation in peripheral white blood cells and central adiposity (truncal fat), metabolic features and dietary fat intake. A group of 40 normal-weight young women (21±3y; BMI 21.0±1.7kg/m(2)) was included in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric, biochemical and dietary data were assessed using validated procedures. DNA from white blood cells was isolated and 5-methylcytosine levels of the CpGs sites present in TNFα gene promoter (from -170 to +359 pb) were analyzed by Sequenom EpiTyper. Those women with high truncal fat (⩾52.3%) showed lower 5-methylcytosine levels (P<0.05) in the site CpG13 (at position +207) and CpG19 (+317 pb) of the TNFα gene promoter when were compared to women with lower truncal adiposity. The methylation levels of CpG13 were also correlated with circulating TNFα levels, which were higher in those women with greater truncal adiposity. In a linear regression model, truncal fat, HDL-cholesterol, insulin, plasma TNFα, and daily n-6 PUFA intake explained the methylation levels of CpG13 site +207 by 48% and the average of CpG13 and CpG19 by 43% (P<0.001). In conclusion, women with higher truncal fat showed lower methylation levels of TNFα promoter in peripheral white blood cells and higher plasma TNFα concentrations. DNA methylation levels of TNFα promoter were associated with some metabolic features and with n-6 PUFA intake, suggesting a complex nutriepigenomic network in the regulation of this recognized pro-inflammatory marker.
    Cytokine 06/2013; 64(1). DOI:10.1016/j.cyto.2013.05.028
Show more