When being a girl matters less: accessibility of gender-related self-knowledge in single-sex and coeducational classes and its impact on students' physics-related self-concept of ability.
ABSTRACT Establishing or preserving single-sex schooling has been widely discussed as a way of bringing more girls into the natural sciences.
We test the assumption that the beneficial effects of single-sex education on girls' self-concept of ability in masculine subjects such as physics are due to the lower accessibility of gender-related self-knowledge in single-sex classes.
N=401 eighth-graders (mean age 14.0 years) from coeducational comprehensive schools.
Random assignment of students to single-sex vs. coeducational physics classes throughout the eighth grade. At the end of the year, students' physics-related self-concept of ability was measured using a questionnaire. In a subsample of N=134 students, the accessibility of gender-related self-knowledge during physics classes was assessed by measuring latencies and endorsement of sex-typed trait adjectives.
Girls from single-sex physics classes reported a better physics-related self-concept of ability than girls from coeducational classes, while boys' self-concept of ability did not vary according to class composition. For both boys and girls, gender-related self-knowledge was less accessible in single-sex classes than in mixed-sex classes. To the extent that girls' feminine self-knowledge was relatively less accessible than their masculine self-knowledge, their physics-related self-concept of ability improved at the end of the school year.
By revealing the importance of the differential accessibility of gender-related self-knowledge in single- and mixed-sex settings, our study clarifies why single-sex schooling helps adolescents to gain a better self-concept of ability in school subjects that are considered inappropriate for their own sex.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We investigated effects of the media’s portrayal of boys as “scholastic failures” on secondary school students. The negative portrayal induced stereotype threat (boys underperformed in reading), stereotype reactance (boys displayed stronger learning goals towards mathematics but not reading), and stereotype lift (girls performed better in reading but not in mathematics). Apparently, boys were motivated to disconfirm their group’s negative depiction, however, while they could successfully apply compensatory strategies when describing their learning goals, this motivation did not enable them to perform better. Overall the media portrayal thus contributes to the maintenance of gender stereotypes, by impairing boys’ and strengthening girls’ performance in female connoted domains and by prompting boys to align their learning goals to the gender connotation of the domain. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)Social Psychology. 01/2014; 45(2):112.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Self-concept and self-efficacy are two of the most important motivational predictors of educational outcomes. As most research has studied these constructs separately, little is known about their differential relations to peer ability, opportunities-to-learn in classrooms, and educational outcomes. We investigated these relations by applying (multilevel) structural equation modeling to the German PISA 2006 data set. We found a correlation of ρ = .57 between self-concept and self-efficacy in science, advocating distinguishable constructs. Furthermore, science self-concept was better predicted by the average peer achievement (Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect), whereas science self-efficacy was more strongly affected by inquiry-based learning opportunities. There were also differences in the predictive potential for educational outcomes: Self-concept was a better predictor of future-oriented motivation to aspire a career in the sciences, whereas self-efficacy was a better predictor of current ability. The study at hand provides strong evidence for the related but distinct nature of the two constructs and extends existing research on students' competence beliefs towards social comparisons and opportunities-to-learn. Further implications for the relevance of inquiry-based classroom activities and for the assessment of competence beliefs are discussed.Contemporary Educational Psychology 11/2014; · 2.20 Impact Factor
Conference Paper: A QoS guaranteed hybrid channel assignment strategy[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: These different applications require different QoS (Quality of Service) guaranteed in wireless mesh networks, such as IP telephone, video conference, video on demand (VOD), remote education and other real-time multimedia business, e-commerce. In order to achieve the satisfactory performance in WMNs, we put forward a QoS guaranteed hybrid channel assignment strategy for a multi-Interface wireless mesh network. It adopts fixed channel for the GAs node, dynamic channel for RC node, the channel assignment algorithm according to the node of traffic load and channel contention degree The number of slots assigns to the client nodes will be dynamically changed according to the service level. The strategy can achieve the satisfactory performance in.2013 IEEE Conference Anthology; 01/2013