Association between body mass index and mortality in an 80-year-old population
ABSTRACT To evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in an 80-year-old population.
Six hundred ninety-seven of 1,282 (54.4%) 80-year-old candidate individuals.
The dates and causes of all deaths were followed up for 4 years.
The relative hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause mortality were lower in overweight subjects (BMI > or= 25.0) than in underweight (BMI<18.5) or normal-weight (BMI 18.5-24.9) subjects. Similarly, the HRs for mortality due to CVD in overweight subjects were 78% less (HR=0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.06-0.77) than those in underweight subjects, and those in normal weight subjects were 78% less (HR=0.22, 95% CI=0.08-0.60) than those in underweight subjects. Mortality due to CVD was 4.6 times (HR 4.64, 95% CI=1.68-12.80) as high in underweight subjects as in normal-weight subjects, and mortality due to cancers was 88% lower (HR=0.12, 95% CI=0.02-0.78) in the overweight group than in the underweight group. There were no differences in mortality due to pneumonia.
Overweight status was associated with longevity and underweight with short life, due to lower and higher mortality, respectively, from CVD and cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Background:There is a paucity of data about the impact of changes in anthropometric measurements on the risk of mortality events, especially in men.Methods:The study sample consists of 1805 Iranian men, aged⩾30 years, free from cardiovascular disease at baseline; they had undergone health examinations in both phases I (1999-2001) and II (2001-2003) and were followed up until March 2010. Participants were categorized by changes in anthropometric measurements into four groups: Group 1, change percentage<-5%; Group 2, -5% ⩽change percentages<+5%; Group 3, 5%⩽change percentage<10%; and Group 4, change percentage⩾10%. Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to assess the hazard ratios (HRs) of the anthropometric changes for all-cause mortality, given group 2 as the reference.Results:During 6.6 years of follow-up, 88 cases of mortality events occurred. The confounder-adjusted multivariate HRs for the first, third and fourth groups of hip circumference (HC) changes were 3.13(1.28-7.64), 0.75(0.43-1.31) and 0.82(0.23-2.99); the corresponding values for waist to hip ratio (WHR) change were 1.80(0.75-4.33), 1.21(0.70-2.1) and 2.32(1.25-4.3). After further adjustment for mediator covariates, results did not change. The equivalent values for body mass index and waist circumference did not reach statistical significance.Conclusions:In Middle Eastern Caucasian men, increase in WHR was associated with incident mortality, which was more prominent in those with ⩾10% increase in the ratio. Moreover, decrease in HC was highly associated with excess risk of mortality.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 5 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.235.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 11/2014; DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2014.235 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is well known that atrial fibrillation (AF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are associated with a higher risk of stroke, and new evidence links AF to cognitive impairment, independently from an overt stroke (CI). Our aim was to investigate, assuming an underlying role of atrial microembolism, the impact of CI and CKD in elderly hospitalized patients with AF. We retrospectively analyzed the data collected on elderly patients in 66 Italian hospitals, in the frame of the REPOSI project. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients with AF and different degrees of CI. Multivariate logistic analysis was used to explore the relationship between variables and mortality. Among the 1384 patients enrolled, 321 had AF. Patients with AF were older, had worse CI and disability and higher rates of stroke, hypertension, heart failure, and CKD, and less than 50% were on anticoagulant therapy. Among patients with AF, those with worse CI and those with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) had a higher mortality risk (odds ratio 1.13, p=0.006). Higher disability levels, older age, higher systolic blood pressure, and higher eGFR were related to lower probability of oral anticoagulant prescription. Lower mortality rates were found in patients on oral anticoagulant therapy. Elderly hospitalized patients with AF are more likely affected by CI and CKD, two conditions that expose them to a higher mortality risk. Oral anticoagulant therapy, still underused and not optimally enforced, may afford protection from thromboembolic episodes that probably concur to the high mortality. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.European Journal of Internal Medicine 03/2015; 26(4). DOI:10.1016/j.ejim.2015.02.018 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The relationship between mortality and impaired cognitive function has not been thoroughly investigated in a very elderly community-dwelling population, and little is known about the association of disease-specific mortality with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) subscale scores. Here we evaluated these data in Japanese community-dwelling elderly. In 2003, 85 year-olds (n=207) were enrolled; 205 completed the MMSE for cognitive function and were followed-up for 10 years, during which time 120 participants died, 70 survived, and 17 were lost to follow-up. Thirty-eight deaths were due to cardiovascular disease, 22 to senility, 21 to respiratory disease, and 16 to cancer. All-cause mortality decreased by 4.3% with a 1-point increase in the global MMSE score without adjustment, and it decreased by 6.3% with adjustment for both sex and length of education. Cardiovascular mortality decreased by 7.6% and senility mortality decreased by 9.2% with a 1-point increase in the global MMSE score with adjustment for sex and education. No association was found between respiratory diseases or cancer mortality and global MMSE score. All-cause mortality also decreased with increases in MMSE subscale scores for time orientation, place orientation, delayed recall, naming objects, and listening and obeying. Cardiovascular mortality was also associated with the MMSE subscale of naming objects, and senility mortality was associated with the subscales of time orientation and place orientation. Thus, we found that impaired cognitive function determined by global MMSE score and some MMSE subscale scores were independent predictors of all-cause mortality or mortality due to cardiovascular disease or senility in 85 year-olds.Clinical Interventions in Aging 10/2014; 9:1691-9. DOI:10.2147/CIA.S64107 · 1.82 Impact Factor