Microbial levels in Michigan apple cider and their association with manufacturing practices
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, 139A GM Trout FSHN Building, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1240, USA.Journal of food protection (Impact Factor: 1.85). 06/2007; 70(5):1187-93.
In recent decades, apple cider has been implicated in a series of outbreaks of foodborne illness. The objective of this study was to determine the presence and concentrations of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms in apple cider processed in Michigan and to evaluate the impact of thermal pasteurization, UV light radiation, and implementation of hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) plans on these microbes. Cider samples were obtained from Michigan mills between 1997 and 2004 and analyzed for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, generic E. coli, total coliforms, and aerobic bacteria. Neither E. coli O157:H7 nor Salmonella were detected in any tested cider samples, suggesting a very low frequency of pathogens in Michigan apple cider. The persistent and relatively high frequency of generic E. coli observed in samples obtained in all years indicates a continued risk of pathogen contamination in Michigan apple cider, especially when it is untreated. The use of thermal pasteurization or UV light radiation and reported implementation of HACCP plans were associated with lower frequency and counts of generic E. coli, total coliforms, and aerobic microorganisms. However, the relatively high counts of indicator organisms in some cider samples that were claimed to be treated according to these pathogen reduction measures indicates that some processors had inadequate practices, facilities, or equipment for pathogen reduction or did not consistently or adequately apply practices or pathogen-reduction equipment in an effective manner.
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ABSTRACT: This chapter deals with the issue of contamination in the produce with respect to the concerns regarding the microbiological safety of foods. Many large outbreaks involving widely consumed commodities such as apple cider, cantaloupe, raspberries, bagged lettuce and spinach, tomatoes, green onions, and sprouts have been reported during the past decade. Pathogen contamination of fresh produce has important public health consequences. Not only are there more cases of illness from produce-associated outbreaks, highly vulnerable population groups are often affected. For these individuals, the severity of foodborne illnesses can be much greater, if not life-threatening, and there may be serious long-term consequences to health. An indirect health-related consequence is the reduced intake of beneficial nutrients from fruits and vegetables by individuals concerned about acquiring a foodborne illness. The economic consequences of produce-associated outbreaks are substantial, including the medical costs and lost income of patients, the costs of damage control for the affected produce packer/processor, and lost production time. The potential sources of fool contamination are: preharvest sources, contamination during packing, and contamination during fresh-cut processing. However, the current state of knowledge, it is difficult to readily pin down the actual source or contamination event. This information is necessary as based on the foundation of an improved understanding of the major routes of produce contamination, and of the ability of pathogens to survive and grow on produce, more effective interventions must be developed to reduce the potential for produce contamination.
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ABSTRACT: Patulin is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple juices. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of patulin in (i) apple cider produced and marketed by Michigan apple cider mills during the fall seasons of 2002 to 2003 and 2003 to 2004 and (ii) apple juice and cider, including shelf-stable products, marketed in retail grocery stores in Michigan throughout 2005 and 2006. End product samples (n=493) obtained from 104 Michigan apple cider mills were analyzed for patulin concentration by using solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Patulin was detected (> or =4 microg/liter) in 18.7% of all cider mill samples, with 11 samples (2.2%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. A greater percentage of cider samples obtained from mills using thermal pasteurization contained detectable patulin (28.4%) than did those from mills using UV light radiation (13.5%) or no pathogen reduction treatment (17.0%). Among retail grocery store samples (n=159), 23% of apple juice and cider samples contained detectable patulin, with 18 samples (11.3%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) action level for patulin is 50 microg/kg. Some apple juice samples obtained from retail grocery stores had exceptionally high patulin concentrations, ranging up to 2700 microg/liter. Collectively, these results indicate that most apple cider and juice test samples from Michigan were below the FDA action level for patulin but that certain apple cider and juice processors have inadequate controls over patulin concentrations in final products. The industry, overall, should focus on improved quality of fruit used in juice production and improve culling procedures to reduce patulin concentrations.Journal of food protection 06/2009; 72(6):1255-61. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study investigated the antimicrobial effects of guava against E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in liquid medium. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum lethal concentration (MLC) values for each bacterial strain were recorded. In addition, the growth of the individual strain and a combined mixture of the strains in liquid medium over time were assessed. Guava was found to inhibit the growth of all tested strains. The MIC ranged from 200 to 700 μL/mL and the MLC was at least 500 μL/mL. The minimum effective guava extract concentration needed to show significant growth inhibition was 5%. Without guava extract, bacterial population levels reached 7.0–8.0 log CFU/mL. The addition of guava extract caused significant growth inhibition, resulting in bacterial populations remaining within 3.0 log CFU/mL during the incubation. These results indicate guava could be used as a potential effective antimicrobial agent that can be used to ensure food safety.International Journal of Food Properties 01/2011; 14(1-1):102-109. DOI:10.1080/10942910903147833 · 0.92 Impact Factor
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