A Program to Provide Antiretroviral Therapy to Residents of an Urban Slum in Nairobi, Kenya
ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate retention in care and response to therapy for patients enrolled in an antiretroviral treatment program in a severely resource-constrained setting. METHODS: We evaluated patients enrolled between February 26, 2003, and February 28, 2005, in a community clinic in Kibera, an informal settlement, in Nairobi, Kenya. Midlevel providers offered simplified, standardized antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens and monitored patients clinically and with basic laboratory tests. Clinical, immunologic, and virologic indicators were used to assess response to ART; adherence was determined by 3-day recall. A total of 283 patients (70% women; median baseline CD4 count, 157 cells/ mm(3); viral load, 5.16 log copies/mL) initiated ART and were followed for a median of 7.1 months (n = 2384 patient-months). RESULTS: At 1 year, the median CD4 count change was +124.5 cells/mm(3) (n = 74; interquartile range, 42 to 180), and 71 (74%) of 96 patients had viral load <400 copies/mL. The proportion of patients reporting 100% adherence over the 3 days before monthly clinic visits was 94% to 100%. As of February 28, 2005, a total of 239 patients (84%) remained in care, 22 (8%) were lost to follow-up, 12 (4%) were known to have died, 5 (2%) had stopped ART, 3 (1%) moved from the area, and 2 (< 1% ) transferred care. Conclusions: Response to ART in this slum population was comparable to that seen in industrialized settings. With government commitment, donor support, and community involvement, it is feasible to implement successful ART programs in extremely challenging social and environmental conditions.
- SourceAvailable from: Gisela Schneider
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- "Last year, they compared ART patients treated by non-physician clinicians to those treated by doctors, and reported that the quality of services provided by non-physician clinicians was equivalent to or slightly better than that of doctors . Recent articles report on clinical officers and/or nurses providing ART in Kenya [13,14], Malawi , Rwanda  and Zambia [17,18]. "
ABSTRACT: To increase access to antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings, several experts recommend "task shifting" from doctors to clinical officers, nurses and midwives. This study sought to identify task shifting that has already occurred and assess the antiretroviral therapy training needs among clinicians to whom tasks have shifted. The Infectious Diseases Institute, in collaboration with the Ugandan Ministry of Health, surveyed health professionals and heads of antiretroviral therapy clinics at a stratified random sample of 44 health facilities accredited to provide this therapy. A sample of 265 doctors, clinical officers, nurses and midwives reported on tasks they performed, previous human immunodeficiency virus training, and self-assessment of knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus and antiretroviral therapy. Heads of the antiretroviral therapy clinics reported on clinic characteristics. Thirty of 33 doctors (91%), 24 of 40 clinical officers (60%), 16 of 114 nurses (14%) and 13 of 54 midwives (24%) who worked in accredited antiretroviral therapy clinics reported that they prescribed this therapy (p<0.001). Sixty-four percent of the people who prescribed antiretroviral therapy were not doctors. Among professionals who prescribed it, 76% of doctors, 62% of clinical officers, 62% of nurses and 51% of midwives were trained in initiating patients on antiretroviral therapy (p=0.457); 73%, 46%, 50% and 23%, respectively, were trained in monitoring patients on the therapy (p=0.017). Seven percent of doctors, 42% of clinical officers, 35% of nurses and 77% of midwives assessed that their overall knowledge of antiretroviral therapy was lower than good (p=0.001). Training initiatives should be an integral part of the support for task shifting and ensure that antiretroviral therapy is used correctly and that toxicity or drug resistance do not reverse accomplishments to date.Human Resources for Health 08/2009; 7(1):76. DOI:10.1186/1478-4491-7-76 · 1.83 Impact Factor
Article: Names in bold are those of staff or full-time on-site contractors in DHAP whose published affiliation includes (at a minimum) CDC (preferably, the published affiliation of a staff member or a contractor specifies the Divisions of HIV/AIDS Prevention). That is, if a contractor's published affiliation is only the name of the contracting company, that contractor's name is not bolded on this list