Endocardium is necessary for cardiomyocyte movement during heart tube assembly
ABSTRACT Embryonic heart formation requires the union of bilateral populations of cardiomyocytes and their reorganization into a simple tube. Little is known about the morphogenetic mechanisms that coordinate assembly of the heart tube and determine its dimensions. Using time-lapse confocal microscopy to track individual cardiomyocyte movements in the zebrafish embryo, we identify two morphologically and genetically separable phases of cell movement that coordinate heart tube assembly. First, all cardiomyocytes undergo coherent medial movement. Next, peripherally located cardiomyocytes change their direction of movement, angling toward the endocardial precursors and thereby establishing the initial circumference of the nascent heart tube. These two phases of cardiomyocyte behavior are independently regulated. Furthermore, we find that myocardial-endocardial interactions influence the second phase by regulating the induction, direction and duration of cardiomyocyte movement. Thus, the endocardium plays a crucial early role in cardiac morphogenesis, organizing cardiomyocytes into a configuration appropriate for heart tube assembly. Together, our data reveal a dynamic cellular mechanism by which tissue interactions establish organ architecture.
SourceAvailable from: Lucie Carrier[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Over the past decade our understanding of cardiomyopathies has improved dramatically, due to improvements in screening and detection of gene-defects in the human genome as well as a variety of novel animal models (mouse, zebrafish and drosophila) and in silico computational models. These novel experimental tools have created a platform that is highly complementary to the naturally occurring cardiomyopathies in cats and dogs that had been available for some time. A fully integrative approach, which incorporates all these modalities, is likely required for significant steps forward in understanding the molecular underpinnings and pathogenesis of cardiomyopathies. Finally, novel technologies, including CRISPR/Cas9, which have already been proven to work in zebrafish, are currently being employed to engineer sarcomeric cardiomyopathy in larger animals, including pigs and non-human primates. In the mouse, the increased speed with which these techniques can be employed to engineer precise "knock-in" models that previously took years to make via multiple rounds of homologous recombination-based gene targeting, promises multiple and precise models of human cardiac disease for future study. Such novel genetically engineered animal models recapitulating human sarcomeric protein defects will help bridging the gap to translate therapeutic targets from small animal and in silico models to the human patient with sarcomeric cardiomyopathy. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.Cardiovascular Research 01/2015; DOI:10.1093/cvr/cvv006 · 5.81 Impact Factor
03/2015; 2(1):2-16. DOI:10.3390/jcdd2010002
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ABSTRACT: Epigenetic mechanisms are fundamental in cardiac adaptations, remodeling, reverse remodeling, and disease. This two-article series proposes that variable forces associated with diastolic RV/LV rotatory intraventricular flows can exert physiologically and clinically important, albeit still unappreciated, epigenetic actions influencing functional and morphological cardiac adaptations and/or maladaptations. Taken in toto, the two-part survey formulates a new paradigm in which intraventricular diastolic filling vortex-associated forces play a fundamental epigenetic role, and examines how heart cells react to these forces. The objectives are to provide a perspective on vortical epigenetic effects, to introduce emerging ideas, and to suggest directions of multidisciplinary translational research. The main goal is to make pertinent biophysics and cytomechanical dynamic systems concepts accessible to interested translational and clinical cardiologists. I recognize that the diversity of the epigenetic problems can give rise to a diversity of approaches and multifaceted specialized research undertakings. Specificity may dominate the picture. However, I take a contrasting approach. Are there concepts that are central enough that they should be developed in some detail? Broadness competes with specificity. Would, however, this viewpoint allow for a more encompassing view that may otherwise be lost by generation of fragmented results? Part 1 serves as a general introduction, focusing on background concepts, on intracardiac vortex imaging methods, and on diastolic filling vortex-associated forces acting epigenetically on RV/LV endocardium and myocardium. Part 2 will describe pertinent available pluridisciplinary knowledge/research relating to mechanotransduction mechanisms for intraventricular diastolic vortex forces and myocardial deformations and to their epigenetic actions on myocardial and ventricular function and adaptations.Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12265-015-9611-y · 2.69 Impact Factor