Catalytic activity is not required for secreted PCSK9 to reduce low density lipoprotein receptors in HepG2 cells.
ABSTRACT Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), a member of the proteinase K subfamily of subtilases, promotes internalization and degradation of low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) after binding the receptor on the surface of hepatocytes. PCSK9 has autocatalytic activity that releases the prodomain at the N terminus of the protein. The prodomain remains tightly associated with the catalytic domain as the complex transits the secretory pathway. It is not known whether enzymatic activity is required for the LDLR-reducing effects of PCSK9. Here we expressed the prodomain together with a catalytically inactive protease domain in cells and purified the protein from the medium. The ability of the catalytically inactive PCSK9 to bind and degrade LDLRs when added to culture medium of human hepatoma HepG2 cells at physiological concentrations was similar to that seen using wild-type protein. Similarly, a catalytic-dead version of a gain-of-function mutant, PCSK9(D374Y), showed no loss of activity compared with a catalytically active counterpart; both proteins displayed approximately 10-fold increased activity in degradation of cell surface LDLRs compared with wild-type PCSK9. We conclude that the ability of PCSK9 to degrade LDLRs is independent of catalytic activity and suggest that PCSK9 functions as a chaperone to prevent LDLR recycling and/or to target LDLRs for lysosomal degradation.
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Review novel insights into the biology of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) that may explain the extreme efficiency of PCSK9 inhibition and the unexpected metabolic effects resulting from PCSK9 monoclonal antibody therapy, and may identify additional patients as target of therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: For over 20 years, the practical knowledge of cholesterol metabolism has centered around cellular mechanisms, and around the idea that statin therapy is the essential step to control metabolic abnormalities for cardiovascular risk management. This view has been embraced by the recent AHA/ACC guidelines, but is being challenged by recent studies including nonstatin medications and by the development of a new class of cholesterol-lowering agents that seems destined to early US Food and Drug Administration approval. The discovery of PCSK9 - a circulating protein that regulates hepatic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and serum LDL cholesterol levels - has led to a race for its therapeutic inhibition. Recent findings on PCSK9 regulation and pleiotropic effects will help identify additional patient groups likely to benefit from the inhibitory therapy and unravel the full potential of PCSK9 inhibition therapy. SUMMARY: Injectable human monoclonal antibodies to block the interaction between PCSK9 and LDL receptor are demonstrating extraordinary efficacy (LDL reductions of up to 70%) and almost the absence of any side-effects. A more moderate effect is seen on other lipoprotein parameters, with the exception of lipoprotein(a) levels. We describe mechanisms that can explain the effect on lipoprotein(a), predict a potential effect on postprandial triglyderides, and suggest a new category of patients for anti-PCSK9 therapyCurr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 02/2015; 22(2):126-132.
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ABSTRACT: The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has emerged as a promising treatment target to lower serum cholesterol, a major risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. Gain-of-function mutations of PCSK9 are associated with hypercholesterolemia and increased risk of cardiovascular events. Conversely, loss-of-function mutations cause low-plasma LDL-C levels and a reduction of cardiovascular risk without known unwanted effects on individual health. Experimental studies have revealed that PCSK9 reduces the hepatic uptake of LDL-C by increasing the endosomal and lysosomal degradation of LDL receptors (LDLR). A number of clinical studies have demonstrated that inhibition of PCSK9 alone and in addition to statins potently reduces serum LDL-C concentrations. This review summarizes the current data on the regulation of PCSK9, its molecular function in lipid homeostasis and the emerging evidence on the extra-hepatic effects of PCSK9.Basic research in cardiology. 03/2015; 110(2):463.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Atherosclerosis is a life-long illness that begins with risk factors, which in turn contribute to the development of subclinical disease, followed by the establishment of overt cardiovascular disease (CVD). Thrombotic-occlusive complications of atherosclerosis are among the most widespread and costly health problems. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) plays an important role in atherogenesis by promoting an inflammatory environment and lipid deposition in the arterial wall. As cardiovascular events occur in individuals without common risk factors, there is a need for additional tools that may help in CVD risk assessment and management. The use of biomarkers has improved diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic outcome in cardiovascular medicine. This review elaborates on the value of circulating OxLDL as a biomarker of CVD. Three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (4E6, DLH3 and E06) using murine monoclonal antibodies for determination of OxLDL blood levels have been developed. However, none of these assays are currently approved for routine clinical practice. We identified studies investigating OxLDL in CVD (measured by 4E6, DLH3 or E06 assay) by searching the PubMed database. Circulating OxLDL was found to be associated with all stages of atherosclerosis, from early atherogenesis to hypertension, coronary and peripheral arterial disease, acute coronary syndromes and ischemic cerebral infarction. The results of studies investigating the usefulness of OxLDL for CVD prediction were also summarized. Furthermore, OxLDL was found to be associated with pathologic conditions linked to CVD, including diabetes mellitus, obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). In addition, we have addressed the mechanisms by which OxLDL promotes atherogenesis, and the effects of antiatherogenic treatments on circulating OxLDL. Finally, we highlight the evidence suggesting that lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is the preferential carrier of oxidized phospholipids (OxPL) in human plasma. A strong association between OxPL/apoB level (representing the content of OxPL on apolipoprotein B-100 particles, measured by E06 assay) and Lp(a) has been determined.Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences 12/2014; · 7.00 Impact Factor