Tumor progression locus-2 is a critical regulator of pancreatic and lung inflammation during acute pancreatitis.
ABSTRACT Pancreatic and lung inflammation during acute pancreatitis is a poorly understood, but clinically important, phenomenon. The proto-oncogene Tpl2 (tumor progression locus-2) has recently been shown to have important immunomodulatory effects on some inflammatory processes, but its importance to pancreatitis has not been previously examined. Our studies were designed to (a) define the effects of Tpl2 on pancreatic and lung inflammation during pancreatitis and (b) identify mechanisms and cell types responsible for those effects. We examined pancreatitis-associated Tpl2 effects in wild type and Tpl2(-/-) mice subjected to either secretagogue-induced or bile salt-induced pancreatitis. To determine the myeloid or non-myeloid lineage of cells responsible for the Tpl2 effects, we used Tpl2(-/-) chimeric mice generated by lethal irradiation followed by bone marrow transplantation. Mechanisms responsible for the effects of Tpl2 ablation on caerulein-induced proinflammatory events were evaluated under in vivo and in vitro conditions using the techniques of electrophoretic mobility shift assay, immunoblot analysis, and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. We found that Tpl2 ablation markedly reduced pancreatic and lung inflammation in these two dissimilar models of pancreatitis, but it did not alter pancreatic injury/necrosis in either model. The reduction in caerulein-induced pancreatic inflammation is dependent upon Tpl2 ablation in non-myeloid cells and is associated with both in vivo and in vitro inhibition of MEK, JNK, and AP-1 activation and the expression of MCP-1, MIP-2, and interleukin-6. Non-myeloid cell expression of Tpl2 regulates pancreatic inflammation during pancreatitis by mediating proinflammatory signals and the generation of neutrophil chemoattracting factors.
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ABSTRACT: The IκB kinase (IKK) complex plays a well-documented role in innate and adaptive immunity. This function has been widely attributed to its role as the central activator of the NF-κB family of transcription factors. However, another important consequence of IKK activation is the regulation of TPL-2, a MEK kinase that is required for activation of ERK-1/2 MAP kinases in myeloid cells following Toll-like receptor and TNF receptor stimulation. In unstimulated cells, TPL-2 is stoichiometrically complexed with the NF-κB inhibitory protein NF-κB1 p105, which blocks TPL-2 access to its substrate MEK, and the ubiquitin-binding protein ABIN-2 (A20-binding inhibitor of NF-κB 2), both of which are required to maintain TPL-2 protein stability. Following agonist stimulation, the IKK complex phosphorylates p105, triggering its K48-linked ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome. This releases TPL-2 from p105-mediated inhibition, facilitating activation of MEK, in addition to modulating NF-κB activation by liberating associated Rel subunits for translocation into the nucleus. IKK-induced proteolysis of p105, therefore, can directly regulate both NF-κB and ERK MAP kinase activation via NF-κB1 p105. TPL-2 is critical for production of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF during inflammatory responses. Consequently, there has been considerable interest in the pharmaceutical industry to develop selective TPL-2 inhibitors as drugs for the treatment of TNF-dependent inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. This review summarizes our current understanding of the regulation of TPL-2 signaling function, and also the complex positive and negative roles of TPL-2 in immune and inflammatory responses.Cell Research 04/2011; 21(4):704. · 10.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Honokiol is known to suppress the growth of cancer cells; however, to date, its anti-peritoneal dissemination effects have not been studied in an orthotopic mouse model. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-peritoneal dissemination potential of Honokiol in an orthotopic mouse model and assessed associations with tumor growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) and cells stimulated by a carcinogen, MNNG. Our results demonstrate that tumor growth, peritoneal dissemination and peritoneum or organ metastasis of orthotopically implanted MKN45 cells were significantly decreased in Honokiol-treated mice and that ER stress was induced. Honokiol-treated tumors showed increased epithelial signatures such as E-Cadherin, cytokeratin-18, and ER stress marker. In contrast, decreased expression of vimentin, Snail and Tpl2 was also noted. TGFβ1 and MNNG-induced downregulation of E-Cadherin and upregulation of Tpl2 were abrogated by Honokiol treatment. The effect of Tpl2 inhibition in cancer cells or endothelial cells was associated with inactivation of C/EBPβ, NF-κB and AP-1 and suppression of VEGF. Inhibition of Tpl2 in gastric cancer cells by siRNA or pharmacological inhibitor was found to effectively reduce growth ability and vessel density in vivo. Honokiol-induced reversal of EMT and ER stress-induced apoptosis via Tp12 may involve the paralleling processes. Taken together, our results suggest that the therapeutic inhibition of Tpl2 by Honokiol thwarts both gastric tumor growth and peritoneal dissemination by inducing ER stress and inhibiting EMT.Carcinogenesis 07/2013; · 5.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patients with gallbladder cancer usually have a poor prognosis, and effective standard chemotherapeutic regimens have not been established. The anticancer activities of guggulsterone have been demonstrated in various cancer cells. The aims of the study were to determine the effect of guggulsterone on gallbladder cancer cells and to investigate whether treatment with guggulsterone influences the antitumor activities of gemcitabine. The Dojindo Cell Counting Kit-8 assay was used to determine the inhibition of proliferation by drugs in TGBC1 and TGBC2 cells. Cell migration and invasion were examined using 24-well inserts and Matrigel™-coated invasion chambers. The activities of NF-κB p65, VEGF-C, and MMP-2 were measured by ELISA. Guggulsterone inhibited the proliferation and suppressed migration and invasion of gallbladder cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Guggulsterone significantly decreased NF-κB p65, VEGF-C, and MMP-2 activities in the gallbladder cancer cells examined. Gallbladder cancer cells treated with a combination of guggulsterone and gemcitabine demonstrated significant inhibition of cell proliferation and invasion when compared to treatment with gemcitabine alone. In addition, NF-κB p65 activation decreased significantly in cells treated with a combination of guggulsterone and gemcitabine when compared to treatment with gemcitabine alone. Guggulsterone exhibits anticancer activities and enhances the antitumor activities of gemcitabine through the suppression of NF-κB activation in gallbladder cancer cells. These results suggest that guggulsterone could be a potential therapeutic option for patients with gallbladder cancer.Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 06/2012; 138(10):1743-51. · 2.91 Impact Factor