Tumor progression locus-2 is a critical regulator of pancreatic and lung inflammation during acute pancreatitis
ABSTRACT Pancreatic and lung inflammation during acute pancreatitis is a poorly understood, but clinically important, phenomenon. The proto-oncogene Tpl2 (tumor progression locus-2) has recently been shown to have important immunomodulatory effects on some inflammatory processes, but its importance to pancreatitis has not been previously examined. Our studies were designed to (a) define the effects of Tpl2 on pancreatic and lung inflammation during pancreatitis and (b) identify mechanisms and cell types responsible for those effects. We examined pancreatitis-associated Tpl2 effects in wild type and Tpl2(-/-) mice subjected to either secretagogue-induced or bile salt-induced pancreatitis. To determine the myeloid or non-myeloid lineage of cells responsible for the Tpl2 effects, we used Tpl2(-/-) chimeric mice generated by lethal irradiation followed by bone marrow transplantation. Mechanisms responsible for the effects of Tpl2 ablation on caerulein-induced proinflammatory events were evaluated under in vivo and in vitro conditions using the techniques of electrophoretic mobility shift assay, immunoblot analysis, and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. We found that Tpl2 ablation markedly reduced pancreatic and lung inflammation in these two dissimilar models of pancreatitis, but it did not alter pancreatic injury/necrosis in either model. The reduction in caerulein-induced pancreatic inflammation is dependent upon Tpl2 ablation in non-myeloid cells and is associated with both in vivo and in vitro inhibition of MEK, JNK, and AP-1 activation and the expression of MCP-1, MIP-2, and interleukin-6. Non-myeloid cell expression of Tpl2 regulates pancreatic inflammation during pancreatitis by mediating proinflammatory signals and the generation of neutrophil chemoattracting factors.
- SourceAvailable from: maria grazia Borrello[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Inflammation has long been suspected to contribute to tumor growth. However, the concept that oncogenes, known for decades as responsible for cell neoplastic transformation, build up an inflammatory pro-tumorigenic microenvironment is emerging only in the last few years. The well known oncogenes RAS and MYC have been causally linked to tumor angiogenesis through different ways. Moreover, in thyroid tumors, where many of the genetic tumor-initiating events have been identified, the oncogenes driving tumorigenesis were proved able to induce an inflammatory program. This minireview will focus on growing evidence implicating the role of intrinsic, oncogene-driven pathways leading to pro-tumoral inflammation.Cancer letters 06/2008; 267(2):262-70. DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2008.03.060 · 5.02 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Obesity is a risk factor for acute pancreatitis (AP), but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Adiponectin, an adipose tissue-derived secretory factor, has anti-inflammatory properties in addition to various biological functions, and its plasma concentrations are reduced in obese subjects. However, the role of adiponectin in AP has not been investigated. To determine the effects of adiponectin on AP. We investigated the effects of adiponectin on experimental AP by using adiponectin-knockout (APN-KO) mice and adenovirus-mediated adiponectin over-expression. AP was induced by 10 hourly intraperitoneal injections of low-dose caerulein (10 microg/kg) after 2 week feeding of normal chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) in wild-type (WT) and APN-KO mice. We evaluated the severity of AP biochemically and morphologically. Low-dose caerulein treatment did not induce pancreatic damage in either WT or APN-KO mice under normal chow feeding. APN-KO mice, but not WT mice, fed a HFD and then treated with caerulein developed pancreatic damage and inflammation, accompanied by increased macrophage/neutrophil infiltration and upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumour necrosis factor alpha in the pancreas. Adenovirus-mediated over-expression of adiponectin attenuated the severity of HFD/caerulein-induced AP in APN-KO mice. Adiponectin plays a protective role in caerulein-induced AP in HFD-fed mice.Gut 07/2008; 57(10):1431-40. DOI:10.1136/gut.2007.135665 · 13.32 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) is a 7-transmembrane G-protein-coupled tethered ligand receptor that is expressed by pancreatic acinar and ductal cells. It can be physiologically activated by trypsin. Previously reported studies (Namkung, W., Han, W., Luo, X., Muallem, S., Cho, K. H., Kim, K. H., and Lee, M. G. (2004) Gastroenterology 126, 1844-1859; Sharma, A., Tao, X., Gopal, A., Ligon, B., Andrade-Gordon, P., Steer, M. L., and Perides, G. (2005) Am. J. Physiol. 288, G388-G395) have shown that PAR2 activation exerts a protective effect on the experimental model of pancreatitis induced by supramaximal secretagogue (caerulein) stimulation. We now show that PAR2 exerts a worsening effect on a different model of experimental pancreatitis, i.e. one induced by retrograde pancreatic ductal infusion of bile salts. In vitro studies using freshly prepared pancreatic acini show that genetic deletion of PAR2 reduces bile salt-induced pathological calcium transients, acinar cell injury, and activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, whereas genetic deletion of PAR2 has the opposite or no effect on these pancreatitis-related events when they are elicited, in vitro, by caerulein stimulation. Studies employing a combination of trypsin inhibition and activation of PAR2 with the activating peptide SLIGRL show that all these differences indeed depend on the activation of PAR2. These studies are the first to report that a single perturbation can have model-specific and opposite effects on pancreatitis, and they underscore the importance of performing mechanistic pancreatitis studies using two dissimilar models of the disease to detect idiosyncratic, model-specific events. We suggest PAR2 activation exerts a worsening effect on the severity of clinical pancreatitis and that interventions interfering with PAR2 activation may be of benefit in the treatment of patients with severe pancreatitis.Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2008; 283(30):20703-12. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M801779200 · 4.60 Impact Factor