Pancreatic and lung inflammation during acute pancreatitis is a poorly understood, but clinically important, phenomenon. The proto-oncogene Tpl2 (tumor progression locus-2) has recently been shown to have important immunomodulatory effects on some inflammatory processes, but its importance to pancreatitis has not been previously examined. Our studies were designed to (a) define the effects of Tpl2 on pancreatic and lung inflammation during pancreatitis and (b) identify mechanisms and cell types responsible for those effects. We examined pancreatitis-associated Tpl2 effects in wild type and Tpl2(-/-) mice subjected to either secretagogue-induced or bile salt-induced pancreatitis. To determine the myeloid or non-myeloid lineage of cells responsible for the Tpl2 effects, we used Tpl2(-/-) chimeric mice generated by lethal irradiation followed by bone marrow transplantation. Mechanisms responsible for the effects of Tpl2 ablation on caerulein-induced proinflammatory events were evaluated under in vivo and in vitro conditions using the techniques of electrophoretic mobility shift assay, immunoblot analysis, and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. We found that Tpl2 ablation markedly reduced pancreatic and lung inflammation in these two dissimilar models of pancreatitis, but it did not alter pancreatic injury/necrosis in either model. The reduction in caerulein-induced pancreatic inflammation is dependent upon Tpl2 ablation in non-myeloid cells and is associated with both in vivo and in vitro inhibition of MEK, JNK, and AP-1 activation and the expression of MCP-1, MIP-2, and interleukin-6. Non-myeloid cell expression of Tpl2 regulates pancreatic inflammation during pancreatitis by mediating proinflammatory signals and the generation of neutrophil chemoattracting factors.
"Activation of NF-κB p65 was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Active Motif, Carlsbad, CA, USA) on nuclear extracts prepared with the nuclear extract kit (Active Motif) according to the manufacturer's instruction (de Haij et al, 2003; Van Acker et al, 2007). The culture medium of the FXR siRNA-transfected MIA-PaCa2 and PANC-1 cells assayed immediately using commercially available VEGF ELISA kits (R&D Systems). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymph node metastasis is one of the most important adverse prognostic factors for pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to identify novel lymphatic metastasis-associated markers and therapeutic targets for pancreatic cancer.
DNA microarray study was carried out to identify genes differentially expressed between 17 pancreatic cancer tissues with lymph node metastasis and 17 pancreatic cancer tissues without lymph node metastasis. The microarray results were validated by real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to examine the expression of farnesoid X receptor (FXR). The function of FXR was studied by small interfering RNA and treatment with FXR antagonist guggulsterone and FXR agonist GW4064.
Farnesoid X receptor overexpression in pancreatic cancer tissues with lymph node metastasis is associated with poor patient survival. Small interfering RNA-mediated downregulation of FXR and guggulsterone-mediated FXR inhibition resulted in a marked reduction in cell migration and invasion. In addition, downregulation of FXR reduced NF-κB activation and conditioned medium from FXR siRNA-transfected cells showed reduced VEGF levels. Moreover, GW4064-mediated FXR activation increased cell migration and invasion.
These findings indicated that FXR overexpression plays an important role in lymphatic metastasis of pancreatic cancer and that downregulation of FXR is an effective approach for inhibition of pancreatic tumour progression.
British Journal of Cancer 03/2011; 104(6):1027-37. DOI:10.1038/bjc.2011.37 · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammation has long been suspected to contribute to tumor growth. However, the concept that oncogenes, known for decades as responsible for cell neoplastic transformation, build up an inflammatory pro-tumorigenic microenvironment is emerging only in the last few years. The well known oncogenes RAS and MYC have been causally linked to tumor angiogenesis through different ways. Moreover, in thyroid tumors, where many of the genetic tumor-initiating events have been identified, the oncogenes driving tumorigenesis were proved able to induce an inflammatory program. This minireview will focus on growing evidence implicating the role of intrinsic, oncogene-driven pathways leading to pro-tumoral inflammation.
Cancer letters 06/2008; 267(2):262-70. DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2008.03.060 · 5.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is a risk factor for acute pancreatitis (AP), but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Adiponectin, an adipose tissue-derived secretory factor, has anti-inflammatory properties in addition to various biological functions, and its plasma concentrations are reduced in obese subjects. However, the role of adiponectin in AP has not been investigated.
To determine the effects of adiponectin on AP.
We investigated the effects of adiponectin on experimental AP by using adiponectin-knockout (APN-KO) mice and adenovirus-mediated adiponectin over-expression. AP was induced by 10 hourly intraperitoneal injections of low-dose caerulein (10 microg/kg) after 2 week feeding of normal chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) in wild-type (WT) and APN-KO mice. We evaluated the severity of AP biochemically and morphologically.
Low-dose caerulein treatment did not induce pancreatic damage in either WT or APN-KO mice under normal chow feeding. APN-KO mice, but not WT mice, fed a HFD and then treated with caerulein developed pancreatic damage and inflammation, accompanied by increased macrophage/neutrophil infiltration and upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumour necrosis factor alpha in the pancreas. Adenovirus-mediated over-expression of adiponectin attenuated the severity of HFD/caerulein-induced AP in APN-KO mice.
Adiponectin plays a protective role in caerulein-induced AP in HFD-fed mice.
Gut 07/2008; 57(10):1431-40. DOI:10.1136/gut.2007.135665 · 14.66 Impact Factor
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