Late postnatal transmission of HIV-1 and associated factors
ABSTRACT The present study was undertaken to determine the risk and timing of late postnatal transmission (LPT) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).
Breast-fed infants previously enrolled in 2 trials of antiretroviral prophylaxis were monitored in Malawi. Kaplan-Meier and proportional hazard models assessed cumulative incidence and association of factors with LPT.
Overall, 98 infants were HIV infected, and 1158 were uninfected. The cumulative risk of LPT at age 24 months was 9.68% (95% confidence interval, 7.80%-11.56%). The interval hazards at 1.5-6, 6-12, 12-18, and 18-24 months were 1.22%, 4.05%, 3.48%, and 1.27%, respectively.
The risk of LPT beyond 6 months is substantial. Weaning at 6 months could prevent >85% of LPT.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Population-based surveys in Southern Africa suggest a substantial burden of undiagnosed HIV-infected long-term survivors of mother-to-child transmission. We conducted an HIV prevalence survey of primary school pupils in Harare, Zimbabwe, and evaluated school-linked HIV counselling and testing (HCT) for pupils, their families and schoolteachers. Population-weighted cluster sampling was used to select six primary schools. Randomly selected class-grade pupils underwent anonymous HIV testing, with concurrent school-linked family HCT offered during the survey. Focus group discussions and interviews were conducted with pupils, parents/guardians, counsellors, and schoolteachers. About 4386 (73%) pupils provided specimens for anonymous HIV testing. Median age was 9 years (IQR 8-11), and 54% were female. HIV prevalence was 2.7% (95% CI: 2.2-3.1) with no difference by gender. HIV infection was significantly associated with orphanhood, stunting, wasting, and being one or more class grades behind in school due to illness (p<0.001). After adjusting for covariates, orphanhood and stunting remained significantly associated with being HIV positive (p<0.001). Uptake of diagnostic HIV testing by pupils was low with only 47/4386 (1%) pupils undergoing HCT. The HIV prevalence among children under 15 years who underwent HIV testing was 6.8%. The main barrier to HIV testing was parents' fear of their children experiencing stigma and of unmasking their own HIV status should the child test HIV positive. Most guardians believed that a child's HIV-positive result should not be disclosed and the child could take HIV treatment without knowing the reason. Increased recognition of the high burden of undiagnosed HIV infection in children is needed. Despite awareness of the benefits of HIV testing, HIV-related stigma still dominates parents/guardians' psychological landscape. There is need for comprehensive information and support for families to engage with HIV testing services.AIDS Care 03/2013; 25(12). DOI:10.1080/09540121.2013.780120 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The global spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is dependent on the ability of this virus to efficiently cross from one host to the next by traversing a mucosal membrane. Unraveling how mucosal exposure of HIV results in systemic infection is critical for the development of effective therapeutic strategies. This review focuses on understanding the immune events associated with the oral route of transmission (via breastfeeding or sexual oral intercourse), which occurs across the oral and/or gastrointestinal mucosa. Studies in both humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) monkey models have identified viral changes and immune events associated with oral HIV/SIV exposure. This review covers our current knowledge of HIV oral transmission in both infants and adults, the use of SIV models in understanding early immune events, oral immune factors that modulate HIV/SIV susceptibility (including mucosal inflammation), and interventions that may impact oral HIV transmission rates. Understanding the factors that influence oral HIV transmission will provide the foundation for developing immune therapeutic and vaccine strategies that can protect both infants and adults from oral HIV transmission.Immunological Reviews 07/2013; 254(1):34-53. DOI:10.1111/imr.12078 · 12.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Exclusive formula feeding, exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) with early weaning or the administration of antiretroviral therapy to lactating mothers and/or to breastfed newborns may lower postnatal HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to assess mothers' knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) on lactation in various real-life settings in sub-Saharan Africa. A questionnaire survey investigating KAP with regard to breastfeeding in pregnant women of unknown status (Questionnaire A, 16 items) or HIV-infected women (Questionnaire B, 37 items) was administered. Associations between newborn feeding KAP and demographic, socioeconomic, cultural and obstetric variables were investigated. From January 2007 to January 2008, 2112 pregnant women answered Questionnaire A in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. Most women (53.0%) declared EBF as the preferred feeding modality. The practice of strictly defined EBF in previous pregnancies was only 11.4%, which was inversely correlated with education and parity. Questionnaire B was answered by 225 HIV-infected pregnant women in Burkina Faso, Tanzania and Uganda. Knowledge about the lactation-associated risk was associated with previous dead children. Significant variability was observed among collaborating sites. The introduction of fluids other than maternal milk within 6 months of age is common practice in sub-Saharan Africa, requiring intensive health education efforts if strictly defined EBF is to be adopted to decrease HIV postnatal transmission. Significant variation in newborn feeding determinants was observed.International Health 03/2011; 3(1):56-65. DOI:10.1016/j.inhe.2010.11.004 · 1.13 Impact Factor