A multimarker real-time RT-PCR for MAGE-A gene expression allows sensitive detection and quantification of the minimal systemic tumor load in patients with localized cancer.
ABSTRACT Distant metastases of solid tumors are usually associated with fatal outcome. Disseminated cancer cells are considered early indicators of metastasis. Their sensitive detection and quantification would be a valuable tool for staging of disease and as guidance for therapeutic decisions.
We established a highly sensitive and quantitative multimarker real-time RT-PCR assay for amplification of cancer-related genes MAGE-A1, -A2, -A3/6, -A4, -A10 and -A12 using SYBR green I to detect one single tumor cell in 2 mL of blood or bone marrow. The feasibility of the assay was tested in a large cohort of 177 patients with locally confined prostate carcinoma.
Analysis revealed frequent MAGE expression in venous blood and bilateral bone marrow samples (25.5% of all cases) and yielded the first quantitative profile of MAGE expression with a broad range of transcript concentrations for individual markers in the minimal systemic tumor load of patients with localized cancer.
Rare transcripts of different MAGE-A genes can be quantified in clinical samples of cancer patients by a sensitive multimarker real-time RT-PCR. Because of frequent expression of MAGE genes in various types of cancer the multimarker MAGE real-time RT-PCR may be generally useful for detection, quantification and characterization of the individual disseminated tumor load in cancer patients.
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ABSTRACT: The ability of T cells that have been genetically engineered to express T-cell receptors (TCRs) directed against tumor antigens to mediate tumor regression has been demonstrated in several clinical trials. These TCRs have primarily targeted HLA-A*0201-restricted TCRs, as approximately 50% of whites, who represent the predominant population of patients who develop melanomas, expresses this HLA class I allele. These therapies could be extended to additional patients through the use of TCRs that target epitopes that are presented by additional class I alleles that are prevalent in this population such as HLA-C*07 and HLA-A*01, which are expressed by approximately 50% and 30% of the patient population respectively. Therefore, 2 TCRs that recognize an epitope of MAGE-A12 in the context of HLA-C*07 and 2 TCRs that recognize an epitope of MAGE-A3 in the context of HLA-A*01 were isolated from tumor-reactive T-cell clones and cloned in a recombinant retroviral expression vector. Comparative studies indicated that one of the 2 MAGE-A3-reactive TCRs and one of the 2 MAGE-A12-reactive TCRs were superior to the additional TCRs in conferring transduced peripheral blood mononuclear cells with the capacity to recognize a broad array of antigen and MHC-positive target cells. These results provide support for the use of these TCRs in cancer adoptive immunotherapy trials.Journal of immunotherapy (Hagerstown, Md.: 1997) 11/2012; 35(9):680-8. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this case report is to introduce the combined use of brush biopsy and measurement of MAGE-A expression in the diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We report of a 49-year old male patient who was referred to our department with a persistent-suspicious looking leukoplakia. Brush biopsy and an incisional biopsy were performed following clinical diagnosis. Histopathological examination revealed no malignancy. Expression analysis of melanoma-associated antigens A (MAGE-A) using real time RT-PCR was applied to brush biopsy materials because of the high prevalence of MAGE-A determined previously in OSCC's. Results indicated significant MAGE-A3 and A4 expression pattern. Therefore, the lesion was excised completely and an early invasive carcinoma was identified. These results emphasize the role of brush biopsy using a tumor marker with a high expression frequency combined with a high sensitive and high specific detection system in the early diagnosis of OSCC, particularly in widespread leukoplakias.Head & Neck Oncology 12/2009; 1:39. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration of mediastinal lymph nodes (EBUS-TBNA) is apparently more accurate for cancer diagnosis than standard transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA), but it is less sensitive than mediastinoscopy. The detection of disseminated tumour cells in transbronchial needle aspiration and mediastinoscopic biopsies could improve staging and might be helpful concerning indications for neoadjuvant regimen. The goal of this study was to develop a quantitative method for the detection of disseminated tumour cells (DTCs) in lymph node samples from patients with suspected lung cancer. We compared in a prospective trail EBUS-TBNA (n=58 patients, 86 samples) and mediastinoscopy (n=22 patients, 37 samples) in two largely independent cohorts of lung cancer patients. Eleven patients, 14 samples were analysed using both methods. Patients without evidence of malignant disease were available as controls for EBUS-TBNA (n=20 patients, 28 samples) and mediastinoscopy (n=6 patients, 8 samples). Real-time quantitative mRNA analysis was performed for the cytokeratin 19 (CK19) and MAGE-A genes (MAGE-A 1-6, MAGE-A12) as markers, using a LightCycler 480 instrument. CK19 mRNA expression in EBUS-TBNA samples was detected in 84/86 (98%) and in 28/28 control samples (100%). After mediastinoscopy 16/37 (43%) samples of lung cancer patients were CK19 mRNA positive while controls showed no CK19 mRNA expression (0/8). MAGE-A expression was detectable in 42/86 (49%) EBUS-TBNA samples and in 13/37 (35%) mediastinoscopy samples. MAGE-A expression was detected in EBUS-TBNA controls in 3/28 (11%) and 1/8 (12%) mediastinoscopy controls. High MAGE-A expression correlated with increased tumour stage. Since CK19 expression was detected in all EBUS-TBNA samples from the control patients, but not in mediastinoscopy samples, we conclude that CK19 is not suitable as a marker for disseminated tumour cells in samples attained by EBUS-TBNA. One possible explanation is a contamination with epithelial cells from the bronchial tubes. MAGE-A genes are promising markers for disseminated tumour cells in lymph nodes in patients with suspected lung cancer which merit further investigation.Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 10/2009; 68(3):383-8. · 3.14 Impact Factor