Increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease in general populations and patients with schizophrenia.
ABSTRACT Cardiovascular disease (CVD), which includes coronary heart, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular disease, is the leading cause of death in the United States and most developed countries, accounting for about 50% of all deaths. The major risk factors include obesity and its consequences, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance leading to diabetes, and cigarette smoking. In developing countries, CVD will become the leading cause of death due to alarming increases in obesity, sedentary lifestyles, cigarette smoking, and improvements in prevention and treatment of malnutrition and infection. Compared with nonschizophrenics, patients with schizophrenia have a 20% shorter life expectancy (i.e., from 76 to 61 years). In general populations, about 1% die from suicide compared with about 10% among patients with schizophrenia (relative risk = 10). For CVD, the corresponding figures are 50% and about 75% (relative risk = 1.5). In patients with schizophrenia, however, CVD occurs more frequently and accounts for more premature deaths than suicide. Patients with schizophrenia have alarmingly higher rates of obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and cigarette smoking than nonschizophrenic individuals in the general population. Compounding these data, patients with schizophrenia have less access to medical care, consume less medical care, and are less compliant. Primary prevention strategies should include the choice of antipsychotic drug regimens that do not adversely affect the major risk factors for CVD.
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ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of bipolar collaborative chronic care models (B-CCMs) among those with co-occurring substance use, psychiatric, and/or medical conditions has not specifically been assessed. We assessed whether B-CCM effects are equivalent comparing those with and without co-occurring conditions. We reanalyzed data from the VA Cooperative Study #430 (n=290), an 11-site randomized controlled trial of the B-CCM compared to usual care. Moderators included common co-occurring conditions observed in patients with bipolar disorder, including substance use disorders (SUD), anxiety, psychosis; medical comorbidities (total number), and cardiovascular disease-related conditions (CVD). Mixed-effects regression models were used to determine interactive effects between moderators and 3-year primary outcomes. Treatment effects were comparable for those with and without co-occurring substance use and psychiatric conditions, although possibly less effective in improving physical quality of life in those with CVD-related conditions (Beta=-6.11;p=0.04). Limitations included multiple comparisons and underpowered analyses of moderator effects. B-CCM effects were comparable in patients with co-occurring conditions, indicating that the intervention may be generally applied. Specific attention to physical quality of life in those with CVD maybe warranted.Journal of Affective Disorders 06/2008; 112(1-3):256-61. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2008.04.010 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective. To examine which personality traits are associated with the new onset of chronic coronary heart disease (CHD) in psychiatric inpatients within 16 years after their initial evaluation. We theorized that personality measures of depression, anxiety, hostility, social isolation, and substance abuse would predict CHD development in psychiatric inpatients. Method. We used a longitudinal database of psychological test data from 349 Veterans first admitted to a psychiatric unit between October 1, 1983, and September 30, 1987. Veterans Affairs and national databases were assessed to determine the development of new-onset chronic CHD over the intervening 16-year period. Results. New-onset CHD developed in 154 of the 349 (44.1%) subjects. Thirty-one psychometric variables from five personality tests significantly predicted the development of CHD. We performed a factor analysis of these variables because they overlapped and four factors emerged, with positive adaptive functioning the only significant factor (OR=0.798, p=0.038). Conclusion. These results support previous research linking personality traits to the development of CHD, extending this association to a population of psychiatric inpatients. Compilation of these personality measures showed that 31 overlapping psychometric variables predicted those Veterans who developed a diagnosis of heart disease within 16 years after their initial psychiatric hospitalization. Our results suggest that personality variables measuring positive adaptive functioning are associated with a reduced risk of developing chronic CHD. (Journal of Psychiatric Practice 2013;19:477-489).11/2013; 19(6):477-89. DOI:10.1097/01.pra.0000438186.59112.72
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Clinicians are increasingly being asked to implement guideline recommendations into their practice, but are given little practical guidance on this complex task. In this paper we outline a promising theory-driven approach we took to implementing guideline recommendations about routine monitoring of weight gain and metabolic disturbance in our first-episode psychosis clinic. While there is significant psychological and physical morbidity associated with weight gain and metabolic disturbance, routine monitoring was not being undertaken according to guideline recommendations. We examined the factors that make it difficult to undertake routine monitoring by interviewing psychiatrists. This barrier analysis allowed us to develop and introduce feasible and acceptable strategies to address these barriers, increasing the likelihood that routine monitoring would take place. CONCLUSION: This paper advocates for undertaking an analysis of the barriers clinicians face to undertaking evidence-based practice in order to develop more sophisticated approaches to address areas where clinical practice and evidence are divergent. Such an approach is more likely to ensure that measures to improve practice are successful, are meaningful for the clinicians involved, and become imbedded in the clinical practice of the service.Australasian Psychiatry 10/2010; 18(5):451-5. DOI:10.3109/10398561003731189 · 0.56 Impact Factor