Increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease in general populations and patients with schizophrenia.
ABSTRACT Cardiovascular disease (CVD), which includes coronary heart, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular disease, is the leading cause of death in the United States and most developed countries, accounting for about 50% of all deaths. The major risk factors include obesity and its consequences, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance leading to diabetes, and cigarette smoking. In developing countries, CVD will become the leading cause of death due to alarming increases in obesity, sedentary lifestyles, cigarette smoking, and improvements in prevention and treatment of malnutrition and infection. Compared with nonschizophrenics, patients with schizophrenia have a 20% shorter life expectancy (i.e., from 76 to 61 years). In general populations, about 1% die from suicide compared with about 10% among patients with schizophrenia (relative risk = 10). For CVD, the corresponding figures are 50% and about 75% (relative risk = 1.5). In patients with schizophrenia, however, CVD occurs more frequently and accounts for more premature deaths than suicide. Patients with schizophrenia have alarmingly higher rates of obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and cigarette smoking than nonschizophrenic individuals in the general population. Compounding these data, patients with schizophrenia have less access to medical care, consume less medical care, and are less compliant. Primary prevention strategies should include the choice of antipsychotic drug regimens that do not adversely affect the major risk factors for CVD.
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ABSTRACT: Aim: To explore changes in psychological states in response to a bout of high aerobic intensity training (HIT) in patients with depression or schizophrenia compared to healthy individuals. Methods: After familiarization training of HIT, 20 patients with schizophrenia, 13 patients with depression, and 20 healthy individuals performed a no-training day followed by a training day. HIT was 4 × 4 min intervals at 85–95% of peak heart rate, intermitted by 3 min active rest periods at 70% of peak heart rate. Self-evaluation questionnaires of positive affect, negative affect, state anxiety, well-being, distress, and fatigue were completed before training, 15 min after, and 3 h after training. The two latter measures were also completed the no-training day. Results: All three groups improved in positive affect and well-being 15 min after HIT (p < 0.01), but only patients with depression had maintained the effect after 3 h (p = 0.007, p = 0.012). The duration of the improved positive affect was longer in depression (p = 0.002) and schizophrenia (p = 0.025) than in healthy individuals (F2.50 = 5.83, p < 0.01). Patients with depression or schizophrenia had reduced distress and state anxiety 15 min after HIT and 3 h after HIT (p < 0.05). The improvement in distress 15 min after HIT was larger in patients with depression (p = 0.028) compared to healthy individuals (F2.50 = 5.05, p < 0.01). No changes were found during the no-training day (p > 0.05). Conclusion: High aerobic intensity training used as an acute intervention improved positive affect and well-being and reduced distress and state anxiety in patients with depression and schizophrenia. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01310998.Frontiers in Psychiatry 10/2014; 5:148. DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00148
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ABSTRACT: The etiology of schizophrenia remains largely unknown but alterations in the immune system may be involved. In addition to the psychiatric symptoms, schizophrenia is also associated with up to 20 years reduction in life span. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a protein that can be measured in blood samples and reflects the levels of inflammatory activity. It has been associated with mortality and the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.Schizophrenia Bulletin 08/2014; DOI:10.1093/schbul/sbu118 · 8.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives Individuals with bipolar disorder have high rates of other medical comorbidity, which is associated with higher mortality rates and worse course of illness. The present study examined common predictors of medical comorbidity.Methods The Clinical and Health Outcomes Initiative in Comparative Effectiveness for Bipolar Disorder study (Bipolar CHOICE) enrolled 482 participants with bipolar I or bipolar II disorder in a six-month, randomized comparative effectiveness trial. Baseline assessments included current and lifetime DSM-IV-TR diagnoses, demographic information, psychiatric and medical history, severity of psychiatric symptoms, level of functioning, and a fasting blood draw. Medical comorbidities were categorized into two groups: cardiometabolic (e.g., diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and metabolic syndrome) and non-cardiovascular (e.g., seizures, asthma, and cancer). Additionally, we looked at comorbid substance use (e.g., smoking and drug dependence).ResultsWe found that 96.3% of participants had at least one other medical comorbidity. Older age predicted a greater likelihood of having a cardiometabolic condition. Early age of onset of bipolar symptoms was associated with a lower chance of having a cardiometabolic condition, but a greater chance of having other types of medical comorbidity. Additional predictors of other medical comorbidities in bipolar disorder included more time spent depressed, less time spent manic/hypomanic, and longer duration of illness. Medications associated with weight gain were associated with low high-density lipoprotein and abnormal triglycerides.Conclusions There appears to be a substantial medical burden associated with bipolar disorder, highlighting the need for collaborative care among psychiatric and general medical providers to address both psychiatric and other medical needs concomitantly in this group of patients.Bipolar Disorders 08/2014; 17(2). DOI:10.1111/bdi.12243 · 4.89 Impact Factor